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Religious beliefs, practices, and commitment

Benda, B. B. and R. F. Corwyn. 2001. "Are the Effects of Religion on Crime Mediated, Moderated, and Misrepresented by Inappropriate Measures?" Journal of Social Service Research vol. 27, pp. 57-86.
Abstract: The present study consists of random samples from two public schools in the inner-city of a large metropolitan area on the East coast, involving 360 adolescents, and random samples from three rural public high schools in a state in the South involving 477 adolescents. The purpose of the study is to test generalizations found in the literature about whether: (a) church attendance is an adequate measure of the effects of religion on delinquency, (b) religion is related to more serious offenses like crimes against property and persons, (c) church attendance or religiosity are related to crime among adolescents when the effects of major predictors are controlled, and, (d) the effects of religiosity are moderated by region of residence. The findings show that religiosity rather than church attendance is significantly related to crime, and the former remains a significant predictor even it is analyzed simultaneously with the strongest predictor observed in the literature. Finally, the effects of religiosity are not moderated by region of residence (i.e., the effects of religiosity have a significant inverse relationship to crime on the East coast as well as in the South). The implications of these findings are discussed. [Source: SC]

Dean, Kenda Creasy. 2001. "Moshing for Jesus: Adolescence as a Cultural Context for Worship." in Opening the Table: Multicultural Approaches to Worship, edited by Brian Blount and Leonora Tubbs Tisdale. Westminster/ John Knox.

Evans, E. M. 2001. "Cognitive and Contextual Factors in the Emergence of Diverse Belief Systems: Creation Versus Evolution." Cognitive Psychology vol. 42, pp. 217-266.
Abstract: The emergence and distribution of beliefs about the origins of species is investigated in Christian fundamentalist and nonfundamentalist school communities, with participants matched by age, educational level, and locale. Children (n = 185) and mothers (n = 92) were questioned about animate, inanimate, and artifact origins, and children were asked about their interests and natural-history knowledge. Preadolescents, like their mothers, embraced the dominant beliefs of their community, creationist or evolutionist; 8- to 10-year-olds were exclusively creationist, regardless of community of origin; 5- to 7-year-olds in fundamentalist schools endorsed creationism, whereas nonfundamentalists endorsed mixed creationist and spontaneous generationist beliefs. Children's natural-history knowledge and religious interest predicted their evolutionist and creationist beliefs, respectively, independently of parent beliefs. It is argued that this divergent developmental pattern is optimally explained with a model of constructive interactionism: Children generate intuitive beliefs about origins, both natural and intentional, while communities privilege certain beliefs and inhibit others, thus engendering diverse belief systems. [Source: ML]

Grossoehme, D. H. 2001. "Self-Reported Value of Spiritual Issues among Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients." Journal of Pastoral Care vol. 55, pp. 139-145.
Abstract: Reports on a survey of a prospective, uncontrolled sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients on the importance of spiritual issues to them. Results indicated that the vast majority of adolescents in this sample indicated that spiritual beliefs are considered important. Notes that a majority reported that mental health professionals rarely asked them about their beliefs in the spiritual areas. Observes that nearly all the patients reported having a chaplain-led spiritual group that they perceived as a helpful part of the therapeutic milieu. [Source: ML]

Henderson, Joyce T., Dale A. Robbins, Dale Johnson, B. J. Clark, Thomas F. Eaves, and James G. Van Buren. 2001. Youth Leaving the Church? How to Revert This Trend. Los Angeles, CA: Joyce T. Henderson.

Mattis, J. S. and R. J. Jagers. 2001. "A Relational Framework for the Study of Religiosity and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans." Journal of Community Psychology vol. 29, pp. 519-539.
Abstract: Religiosity and spirituality are defining features of African American life. However, within psychology, research on African American religiosity and spirituality has proceeded without benefit of a conceptual framework. This paper labors toward a framework that examines the roles of religion and spirituality in the development and maintenance of social relationships. We review empirical research on the role of religion and spirituality in the lives of African Americans with an eye toward illuminating the affective, cognitive, and behavioral mechanisms through which religion and spirituality shape individual, family, and communal relationships across the developmental span. Future directions for quantitative and qualitative research on African American religious and spiritual life are suggested. [Source: SC]

Moore, Ralph. 2001. Friends: The Key to Reaching Generation X. Ventura, Calif.: Regal Books.

Rabey, Steve. 2001. In Search of Authentic Faith: How Emerging Generations Are Transforming the Church. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Waterbrook Press.

Storch, E. A. and J. B. Storch. 2001. "Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic Religiosity and Academic Dishonesty." Psychological Reports vol. 88, pp. 548-552.
Abstract: The present study was a preliminary examination of the relations among the Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic dimensions of religiosity and academic dishonesty. 244 college students completed the Duke Religion Index and nine questions assessing academic dishonesty. Analysis indicated that (1) regardless of sex, High Nonorganizational and Intrinsic religiosity was associated with lower reported rates of academic dishonesty, and (2) there was an interaction between Organizational religiosity and sex, with High Organizational women;Ind men reporting similar rates of academic dishonest. Furthermore, the Frequency of academic dishonesty reported by High Organizational women was higher than the rates reported by Moderate and Minimal Organizational women. [Source: SC]

Borden, Anne L. 2000. "Beyond Accommodation: When Religion and Popular Culture Meet." Paper presented at Southern Sociological Society (SSS).
Abstract: Sociologists of religion theorize that, in the face of modern secularized society, religious organizations have two options: they may "resist" or they may "accommodate" to the surrounding culture (eg, see Berger, Peter, 1967). Traditionally, the concept of accommodation has implied that religious groups compete with secular society & are losing in the zero-sum game. Recent scholarship (eg, Smith, Christian, 1988) asks sociologists to move beyond this notion of accommodation & to recognize that religion can be both strong & modern. Religious groups can transform aspects of the secular world & may infuse popular culture with sacred meaning. Here, results of a case study based on fieldwork at a Protestant high school youth conference provides evidence of the resacralization of secular culture. TV shows, movies, & commercials are reinterpreted & used to convey religious messages. [Source: SA]

DiGiacomo, James. 2000. "Theology for Teens." America vol. 182, pp. 12-15.
Abstract: Discusses the formation of adolescents' values and aspirations. Status of their capacity for commitment; Increase in the number of believers among the young; Important tasks of high school religious education; Challenges posed by teenagers for the theology teacher. [Source: AS]

Elder, Glen H., Jr. and Rand D. Conger. 2000. Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Abstract: (from the publicity materials) This book presents the results of a long-term study in which the authors followed the lives of more than 300 Iowa children from adolescence until after high school. The authors show how the traditional values associated with farm families--closely knit communities, churches, and schools, and productive roles for youth in both work and social settings--were crucial to the success of these children. This book offers lessons about potential routes to success for all young people at risk. [Source: PI]

Flory, Richard W. and Donald E. Miller. 2000. Genx Religion. New York: Routledge.

Fulton, John. 2000. Young Catholics at the New Millennium: The Religion and Morality of Young Adults in Western Countries. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.

Johnson, B. R., D. B. Larson, and S. De Li. 2000. "Escaping from the Crime of Inner Cities: Church Attendance and Religious Salience among Disadvantaged Youth." Justice Quarterly vol. 17, pp. 377-391.
Abstract: With the theoretical backdrop of social disorganization and "resilient youth" perspectives, we hypothesize that individual religiosity is protective in helping at-risk youths such as those living in poor inner-city areas to escape from drug use and other illegal activities. To test this hypothesis, we draw data from an interview survey of 2,358 youth black males from tracts in poverty in Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia, conducted in 1979 and 1980. Results from a series of multilevel analyses indicate that church attendance (the frequency of attending religious services) has significant inverse effects on nondrug illegal activities, drug use, and drug selling among disadvantaged youths. Religious salience (the perceived importance of religion in one's life), however, is not significantly linked to reductions in juvenile delinquency. we discuss the implications of our findings, focusing on individual religiosity as a potentially important protective factor for disadvantaged youths. [Source: SC]

Lytch, Carol Eichling. 2000. "Choosing Faith across Generations: A Qualitative Study of Church-Affiliated High School Seniors and Their Parents." Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.
Abstract: A heightened sense of personal autonomy has altered how Americans believe and practice religious faith over the last three decades. This study investigates how church-affiliated teens reared in a culture of choice live in the tension between the giveness of their authoritative religious tradition and the "heretical imperative" to choose what to believe and how to practice religious faith. This study offers narrative description of how teens in Louisville, Kentucky, experience three particular suburban/metropolitan congregations--one Catholic, one evangelical Protestant, and one Methodist--in the context of this altered religious culture. Using ethnographic methods of participant observation, interviews, and qualitative data complemented by national survey data, this study analyzes how churches attract teens in timeless ways by offering them a sense of belonging, a way to make meaning, and a challenge to develop competence, even as congregations adapt in different ways to a contemporary culture of choice. Secondly, this study explores the two themes of religious identity and religious loyalty in high school seniors. Especially at the threshold of adulthood, high school seniors seek symbols, stories, and structures to assist them as they select trajectories of vocation and affective ties for their adult lives. Finally, this dissertation weighs the significance of various influences upon teen religiosity and explores how parents, the most important influence, shape their teens' religious outlook. Faith is not just "passed on" to teens today, it is negotiated, and in that process the religious tradition itself is made vital for a new generation. [Source: DA]

Maiello, C., W. Herzog, and M. Neuenschwander. 2000. "Degrees of Belief in God (Bbbs-J): A New Scale for the Measurement of Religiosity in Adolescents." International Journal of Psychology vol. 35, pp. 43-44.

McClendon, Clarence E. 2000. The X Blessing: Unveiling a Redemptive Strategy for a Marked Generation. Nashville: T. Nelson.

Miller, L., M. Davies, and S. Greenwald. 2000. "Religiosity and Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 39, pp. 1190-1197.
Abstract: Objective: To replicate previous findings among adults of an inverse association between religiosity and substance use among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Method: Subjects were 676 (328 female and 348 male) adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey who were assessed for substance use and abuse with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Religiosity was assessed through affiliation with religious denomination and through response to 7 questions concerning belief and practice. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses replicated in adolescents the 2 religiosity factors of personal devotion and personal conservatism previously identified by Kendler among adults, although the 2 factors were more highly correlated in adolescents than in adults. Personal devotion (a personal relationship with the Divine) and affiliation with more fundamentalist religious denominations were inversely associated with substance use and substance dependence or abuse across a range of substances (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, or any contraband drug). Personal conservatism (a personal commitment to teaching and living according to creed) was inversely associated with use of alcohol only. Conclusion: Low levels of religiosity may be associated with adolescent onset of substance use and abuse. [Source: SC]

Pendleton, S. M. and K. S. Ross. 2000. "Perceptions of Chronically Ill Children and Their Parents About the Role of Religion in the Physician-Patient-Parent Interaction." Pediatric Research vol. 47, p. 2839.

Perrin, R. D. 2000. "Religiosity and Honesty: Continuing the Search for the Consequential Dimension." Review of Religious Research vol. 41, pp. 534-544.
Abstract: Despite the fact that it is theologically, psychologically, and sociologically sound to assume that religious commitment should make a difference in the day-to-day life of the individual, research on the behavioral consequences of religious commitment has been somewhat inconsistent This inconsistency has made questions about, for example, the honesty of Christians versus non-Christians very difficult to answer. This study examined data from 130 college students of varying degrees of religious commitment who were presented with an opportunity to be dishonest. Students who report that they attend church and other religious activities, believe in life after death, and consider themselves born again Christians were more likely to be honest. The implications of the findings, especially in light of the generally inconsistent research on the consequential dimension of religion, are discussed. [Source: SC]

Regnerus, Mark D. 2000. "Shaping Schooling Success: Religious Socialization and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Public Schools." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 39, pp. 363-370.
Abstract: This paper analyzes religious socialization as it relates to schooling success. I propose and test a multilevel model of involvement in church activities as providing integration and motivation toward schooling success among metropolitan U.S. public high school sophomores. Results indicate that respondents' participation in church activities is related to heightened educational expectations, and that these more intensely religious students score higher on standardized math/reading tests, even while controlling for variables that often show religious effects to be spurious. The hypothesis that church involvement's effect varies by ecological context - it being a better predictor for students in poorer neighborhoods than average or wealthy neighborhoods - was not supported. [Source: AU]

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C., Elanah Dalyah Naftali, and Laura Musegades. 2000. Growing up Generous: Engaging Youth in Giving and Serving. Bethesda, MD: The Alban Institute.

Rosengren, Karl S., Carl N. Johnson, and Paul L. Harris. 2000. Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific, and Religious Thinking in Children. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Showalter, Shelley M. and Linda Mans Wagener. 2000. "Adolescents' Meaning in Life: A Replication of Devogler and Ebersole (1983)." Psychological Reports vol. 87, pp. 115-126.
Abstract: Previous studies have indicated that adolescents understand the concept of meaning in life and can apply it to their lives. In this study we examined how religious adolescents differ in their self-reports of meaning in life compared to adolescents previously studied. It is expected that adolescents in a Christian community more frequently attribute their meaning in life to beliefs than will adolescents in the non-Christian population. 81 adolescents from a religious summer camp reported commitment to a belief as their strongest personal meaning more frequently than any other category when reported in a free-response essay format, whereas no adolescents in the previous study reported belief as their strongest meaning. [Source: NS]

Sotelo, M. J. 2000. "Individual Differences in Political Tolerance among Adolescents." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 28, pp. 185-192.
Abstract: In this study, political tolerance is defined as the willingness to extend human rights to different socio-political groups. We considered 12 rights based on Human Rights and the 13 socio-political groups most relevant to Spain. Results based on 273 Spanish adolescents suggest that rights with a higher social component are extended more willingly than those which are more political in nature. This study also attempted to find variables related to political tolerance. Statistically, differences in political tolerance were found in terms of age, political experience, self esteem, support for democratic norms, support for violent groups, and identification with a group of friends, a religious group or a soccer team. [Source: SC]

Strizenec, M. 2000. "Religion and Coping: Empirical Verification of Their Interaction." Studia Psychologica vol. 42, pp. 71-74.
Abstract: Research to date concerning the effects of religion on coping with stressful situations has brought new specific data. In terms of theory and research, this subject area has been developed most by K.I. Pargament, who delineated three styles of religious coping: Self-directing, Deferring and Collaborative In a research project involving adolescents, we confirmed the reliability of the Slovak translation of the above author's scale and found a prevalence of the collaboration with God coping style. Similar results were found in other smaller samples of subjects. The Collaborative style is connected with intrinsic religious orientation. [Source: SC]

Vasilev, V. G., V. O. Mazein, and N. I. Martynenko. 2000. "Relationship of Adolescent Students to Religion." Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya pp. 118-120.

Barna, George. 1999. Third Millennium Teens: Research on the Minds, Hearts and Souls of America's Teenagers. Ventura CA: Barna Research Group.

Beaudoin, Tom. 1999. "Evangelical Gen X Ministry: Take It and Leave It." Regeneration Quarterly vol. 5, pp. 20-22.

Daley and Elizabeth Grant. 1999. "Muslim Teens Dispel Myths and Stereotypes." New York Amsterdam News vol. 10, p. 20.
Abstract: Presents an interview with three Muslim teenagers on Islam and on stereotypes at the Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood in Harlem, New York City. Includes a discussion on the basic principles of Islam; Kimar religious clothes; Differences in rules for men and women; Stereotyping of Muslims. [Source: AS]

Donelson, Elaine. 1999. "Psychology of Religion and Adolescents in the United States: Past to Present." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 187-204.
Abstract: Many of the early founders of America were concerned with religious issues, and some of their concerns continue in contemporary science. Psychology of religion has a long history in American psychology, but one marred by neglect and misguided claims about the nature of science. Psychology of religion offers a chance for an expansion of behavioral science into realms of importance to many people. For example, both development during adolescence and the implications of gender differences may be illuminated by a consideration of the role of religion in human life. Particular topics discussed include conversion and religious mobility, religious experience, images of God, identity, and mental health and coping. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. [Source: SS]

D'Onofrio, B. M., L. J. Eaves, L. Murrelle, H. H. Maes, and B. Spilka. 1999. "Understanding Biological and Social Influences on Religious Affiliation, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Behavior Genetic Perspective." Journal of Personality vol. 67, pp. 953-984.
Abstract: Although the transmission of religiousness has been assumed to be purely cultural, behavior genetic studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play a role in the individual differences in some religious traits. This article reviews the extant behavior genetic literature and presents new analyses from the "Virginia 30,000" on the causes of Variation in religious affiliation, attitudes, and practices, and relates these to personality as construed by Eysenck. Results indicate that religious affiliation is primarily a culturally transmitted phenomenon, whereas religious attitudes and practices are moderately influenced by genetic factors. Further, Eysenck's personality traits do not mediate genetic influences on religiousness, but significant negative genetic correlations are found between church attendance and liberal sexual attitudes. Implications and possibilities for future studies are discussed. [Source: SC]

Eccles, Jacquelynne S. and Bonnie L. Barber. 1999. "Student Council, Volunteering, Basketball, or Marching Band: What Kind of Extracurricular Involvement Matters?" Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 14, pp. 10-43.
Abstract: Examined the potential benefits and risks associated with participation in five types of activities: prosocial (church and volunteer activities), team sports, school involvement, performing arts, and academic clubs. A sample of 1,259 Ss was followed from 1983 when the Ss were in the 6th grade to 1997. First, the authors explored the link between involvement in these activities and our indicators of positive and negative development. Involvement in prosocial activities was linked to positive educational trajectories and low rates of involvement in risky behaviors. In contrast, participation in team sports was linked to positive educational trajectories and to high rates of involvement in one risky behavior: drinking alcohol. Then, the authors explored two possible mediators of these associations: peer associations and activity-based identity formation. The evidence supported the hypothesis that group differences in peer associations and activity-based identities help explain activity group differences. [Source: PI]

Gallup, George. 1999. The Spiritual Life of Young Americans: Approaching the Year 2000. Princeton NJ: The George H. Gallup International Institute.

Harrell, Daniel M. 1999. "Post-Contemporary Worship: What? Ambiguity and Antiquity? Candles and Icons? A Glimpse at What Might Be Next." Leadership vol. 20, pp. 37-39.

Ingraham, Cynthia L. 1999. "Music as the Message: Rap, Hip Hop and R & B Stylings Draw Youth in to the Pews." About Time vol. 26, pp. 22-25.
Abstract: Discussed is the recent trend in popular music toward gospel, for example with Kirk Franklin's enormously successful song 'Why We Sing,' which was played on pop, rhythm & blues, and contemporary radio stations. The effect that this trend is having on young people's faith and church attendance is a focus. [Source: BS]

Irwin, Darrell D. 1999. "The Straight Edge Subculture: Examining the Youths' Drug-Free Ways." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 29, pp. 365-380.
Abstract: Examined the sociocultural attributes of a Straight Edge subculture, based on ethnographic field observation and interviews with 86 youth (average age 16.5 yrs) attending alternative music concerts in Long Island. Straight Edge subculture differs from other youth movements by supporting a drug-free lifestyle. Aspects of Straight Edge alternative identity discussed include symbols, dance, lifestyles, religion, and diet. Discussion focuses on the social norms of this drug-free subculture. Whether Straight Edge will develop into a larger movement in the future or remain a small-scale scene is discussed. [Source: PI]

Kidd, Rocky. 1999. "Four Spiritual Laws of Gen X." Sojourners vol. 28.

Kooistra, William P. and Kenneth I. Pargament. 1999. "Religious Doubting in Parochial School Adolescents." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 27, pp. 33-42.
Abstract: 267 high school juniors (aged 15-18 yrs) from Catholic and Protestant parochial schools were surveyed in regard to their doubting of core tenets of Christianity. Various indices were used to investigate the relationships between religious doubting and adverse life events, family environment, and emotional distress. Support was mixed and generally weak for the hypotheses that religious doubt would correlate positively with adverse life events, conflictual family patterns, and emotional distress. However, although no denominational differences were predicted, separate analyses for the Catholic and Protestant students revealed that the latter evidenced a pattern of consistently higher and statistically significant correlations for the predicted relationships. The authors conclude that religious doubting among adolescents may be most highly associated with adverse life events, conflictual family patterns, and emotional distress in subcultures in which religious values are well-integrated into the familial-cultural identity. [Source: PI]

Markstrom, Carol A. 1999. "Religious Involvement and Adolescent Psychosocial Development." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 205-221.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if religious involvement was associated with psychosocial maturity of adolescents as understood in Erikson's (1965) psychosocial theory. Three forms of religious involvement (attendance at religious services, participation in a Bible study group, and youth group involvement) were examined in relation to ego strengths, ideological and ethnic forms of identity, general self-esteem, and school self-esteem. Questionnaires were completed by 62 African-American and 63 European-American students in the 11th grade. All participants were from rural areas in West Virginia and of lower income status. Ego strengths of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, love, and care were associated with various forms of religious involvement. These associations were most apparent for European-Americans. Although ideological identity was not related to religious involvement, higher ethnic identity was associated with being African-American, especially for those more religiously involved. General self-esteem was not significant in the analyses, but school self-esteem was higher for each form of religious involvement. [Source: PI]

McKinney, J. P. 1999. "Adolescents and Religion: A View from the Millenium." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, p. 185.

McKinney, John Paul and Kathleen G. McKinney. 1999. "Prayer in the Lives of Late Adolescents." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 279-290.
Abstract: Prayer is a behavior that is performed by most people at least at some time, and yet social scientists appear to have neglected this topic. 77 college students (aged 18-32 yrs) were interviewed, given the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, and asked to keep 7-day diaries about their prayer activities, whether spontaneous or formal. Correlational analyses revealed a relationship between identity status and frequency of praying, as well as between identity status and commitment to religion. A qualitative analysis of the diary data suggested that prayer may be a revealing approach to the psychosocial lives of late adolescents, including their central concerns, temporal orientation, and the social bounds of their definition of self. [Source: PI]

Oord, Thomas Jay (ed.). 1999. Generation Xers Talk About the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City Mo: Nazarene Pub. House.

Princeton Theological Seminary, Institute for Youth Ministry. 1999. Growing up Postmodern: Imitating Christ in the Age of 'Whatever'. Princeton, N.J.: Institute for Youth Ministry.
Abstract: Communities of faith for citizens of a postmodern world / Nancy T. Ammerman -- Just what is postmodernity and what difference does it make to people of faith? / Nancy T. Ammerman -- "Who is Jesus Christ for us today?": as asked by young people / Martin E. Marty -- Youth between late modernity and postmodernity / Martin E. Marty -- Faithful becoming in a complex world: new powers, perils, and possibilities / Sharon Daloz Parks -- Home and pilgrimage: deep rhythms in the adolescent soul / Sharon Daloz Parks -- Global issues facing youth in the postmodern church / Friedrich Schweitzer -- Imitating Christ in a postmodern world: young disciples today / William Willimon -- Imitating Christ in a postmodern world: making young disciples today / William Willimon. [Source: HA]

Shandler, Sara. 1999. Ophelia Speaks: Adolescent Girls Write About Their Search for Self. New York: HarperPerennial.
Abstract: Body under assault. Media-fed images; Eating disorders; Self-inflicted wounds; Intoxication; Rape and sexual abuse -- Family matters. Mothers; Fathers; Sisters and brothers; Disintegrating foundations; No safe place; Preganancy; Death in the family -- The best and worst of friends. With the support of friends; Friendship lost; When friends die -- Touched by desire. Innocent attractions; Seduced by sex; Diverse sexualities; Manipulated and controlled; Broken-hearted independence -- Overcoming obstacles and coming into our own. The academic squeeze; Depression and therapy; Race, identity, and prejudice; Questions of faith; Feminist pride. [Source: HA]

Shapiro, Susan. 1999. "Spiritual Education: An Assessment of Jewish Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: The present investigation was an exploratory study designed to assess the spiritual needs of Jewish adolescents. Their spiritual beliefs, experiences, interest in developing spiritually, and factors which facilitate and interfere with spirituality were evaluated. A survey was completed by 273 Jewish teenagers in the suburban Philadelphia area who were affiliated with Reform and Conservative supplementary Hebrew high schools. Ten students, who provided a diverse range of responses on the survey, participated in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that over one half of the Jewish adolescents believe in the existence of God, that God plays a role in the creation, and that some decisions are predetermined. Gender differences showed that females are more likely to view God as having a role in the creation, and more likely to view God as having a role in determining important decisions in their lives. Over 90% of the Jewish adolescents in the present study reported having spiritual experiences although they do no occur very often. Their spiritual experiences were mainly related to prayer and religion. These experiences were associated with feelings of peace and connection. About one fifth of the adolescents reported that they do not pray or they feel emptiness or nothing when they do pray. About one half of the Jewish teenagers showed interest in developing themselves spiritually, and this interest increased with age. Over a third viewed relationships with ones' peers as the most important area in which they would like to develop themselves spiritually. Supportive behavior of parents and peers were found to facilitate teenagers' spirituality. At the same time judgmental behavior of parents or peers may interfere with teenagers' spiritual experience. Teachers were not viewed positively as facilitating the teenagers' spirituality. This investigation pointed out the need for inservice training for educators in communication skills, adolescent and spiritual development. The integration of current scientific theory, the arts and nature with religious education; as well as the need for small group exploration with supportive peers is recommended. Future research might examine the teacher-adolescent relationship, gender differences, and the uncertainty expressed by teenagers. [Source: PI]

Song, Minho. 1999. "Patterns of Religious Participation among the Second Generation Koreans in Toronto toward the Analysis and Prevention of 'the Silent Exodus'." Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.

Tori, Christopher D. 1999. "Change on Psychological Scales Following Buddhist and Roman Catholic Retreats." Psychological Reports vol. 84, p. 125.
Abstract: Compares the effects of theistic and nontheistic spiritual practices. Quantification of psychological change scores among teenage youths following three-day Buddhist or Roman Catholic retreats; Noninvolvement of belief in some sort of divinity construct in Buddhism; Likelihood for more change following the Buddhist retreat due to its emphasis on self-control and human existence. [Source: AS]

Trusty, Jerry and Richard E. Watts. 1999. "Relationship of High School Seniors' Religious Perceptions and Behavior to Educational, Career, and Leisure Variables." Counseling and Values vol. 44, pp. 30-39.
Abstract: This study used data from a national sample of 12,992 US high school seniors to investigate the relationship of religious perceptions and behavior to several school, career, and leisure variables. Seniors' positive perceptions of religion and frequent attendance at religious services were related to positive parental involvement, positive school attitudes and behaviors, and infrequent problem behaviors. Parental involvement mediated the effects of religious perceptions and behavior on adolescents, academic attitudes and drug use. However, a large portion of the effects of religious perceptions and behavior was independent of parental involvement. Implications for counselors and educators are provided. [Source: PI]

Yaconelli, Mark. 1999. "Youth Ministry: A Contemplative Approach." Christian Century vol. 116, pp. 450-454.

Youniss, James, Jeffrey A. McLellan, Yang Su, and Miranda Yates. 1999. "The Role of Community Service in Identity Development: Normative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 14, pp. 248-261.
Abstract: Responses from a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors were analyzed to identify predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations among youth. Normative orientation was indexed using indicators of conventional political involvement (e.g., voting), religious attendance, and importance of religion. Unconventional orientation was indexed with unconventional political involvement (e.g., boycotting). Deviance was measured through marijuana use. Frequency of community service substantially increased predictability of these variables over and above background characteristics and part-time work involvement. Involvement in most types of school-based extracurricular activities was positively associated with doing service, as was moderate part-time work. Background characteristics of attending Catholic school, being female, having high socioeconomic status, and coming from an intact family also predicted service involvement. Results are discussed in terms of a theory of social-historical identity development, suggesting that community service affords youth a developmental opportunity to partake of traditions that transcend the material moment and existential present. [Source: PI]

Zullo, James R. 1999. God and Gen-X : Faith & the New Generation. Romeoville IL: Lewis University.

Clark, Schofield Lynn. 1998. "Identity, Discourse, and Media Audiences: A Critical Ethnography of the Role of Visual Media in Religious Identity Construction among United States Adolescents." Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Abstract: Employing a critical/cultural studies approach, this dissertation argues that identity-construction is best understood as the nexus of public discourses and individual subjectivities. To understand the role of media in identity-construction, this work analyzes both the themes of discourse that are available in mediated texts and echoed throughout the culture, and the various social, political, economic and other contexts that frame the individual adolescent's identity narratives and practices. The discourses of religion and their relation to the religious identity-construction of individual subjects provides the focus for the current analysis. The study employed ethnographic interviews with 70 adolescents and their parents, 5 in-depth case studies of adolescents, 3 'peer-led' discussion groups (some of the adolescents involved in case studies were trained to lead focus groups without the primary researcher present), and 3 focus groups with parents of teens. The dissertation argues that there are three distinctive elements of religious identity-construction among adolescents today. First is a flattening of religious symbols. Religious symbols are not necessarily seen by adolescents as authoritative and 'fixed' due to their reference to formal religious institutions but are rather approached as somewhat autonomous and, like other commodified symbols of the postmodern condition of late capitalism, they must be made useful. Second, analyzing the interpretive strategies teens brought to the popular television program Touched by an Angel, the dissertation finds that adolescents embrace a variety of publicly-available discourses of religion which are not solely attributable to race, class, gender, and religious affiliation. Thus the dissertation affirms the rise in personal autonomy or the privatization of religion and the subsequent importance of the mediated realm (as opposed to solely the realm of religious institutions) in determining religious identities. Third, while affirming Stuart Hall's interpretive taxonomy of dominant, negotiated, and oppositional readings, the dissertation demonstrates a fourth interpretive approach, a regeneration that draws upon a dominant or negotiated reading of a text and is based on a viewer's position with reference to the text, yet also subtly informs the individual's larger system of beliefs, thus resulting in a subtly changed belief system. [Source: PI]

Crawford, David Wayne. 1998. "The Relation of Religious Family Background and Ego Identity Development in Late Adolescence." Thesis, University of Houston.
Abstract: This study was designed to extend the literature relative to adolescent ego identity development in family context, looking specifically at how significant religious family background interacts with identity development. Results of this study were based on responses to the Family Environment Scale and the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. The study sample comprised 304 highly religious adolescents from a fundamentalist Christian college. Data analysis was accomplished in two main ways. First, the continuous scores from the religious sample were compared to norm scores provided by the test manuals for the OMEIS and the FES. Second, without reference to the norm groups, scores from the OMEIS and the FES were correlated. The groups differed significantly on both measures, and canonical correlation facilitated identification of potential relations among family characteristics and identity statuses. Overall results indicated that the religious subjects were characterized by high levels of commitment and conviction, leading very directed and purposeful lives. At times, this commitment is balanced and genuinely individual, being preceded by personal search and introspective consideration of alternative commitments. There was also evidence that the religious subjects are often characterized by unreflective commitment typical of the Foreclosure identity status. They perceived their families as highly religious and morally directed, and tending to be very structured, organized and controlled. Very little conflict is experienced, such that expressiveness is also relatively low in this family environment. The numerous significant relations that emerged from the canonical correlations indicate that the religious structure, control and organization is associated with identity low in emptiness and aimlessness (i.e. identity diffusion) and high in identity direction and commitment. However, a relatively unreflective commitment style was found in frequent association with this family environment. Importantly, when independence contributed significantly to family style, more advanced identity functioning was related. In general, it appears that supported individuality and balanced religiosity are most conducive to more advanced identity functioning while highly structure religious control which minimizes expressiveness tends to be associated with less mature identity development. [Source: PI]

Dean, Kenda Creasy and Ron Foster. 1998. The Godbearing Life : The Art of Soul-Tending for Youth Ministry. Upper Room.

Francis, Leslie J. and Carolyn Wilcox. 1998. "Religiosity and Femininity: Do Women Really Hold a More Positive Attitude toward Christianity?" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 37, pp. 462-469.

Gaviria, Alejandro. 1998. "Three Essays on Social Interactions and Intergenerational Mobility." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego.
Abstract: This dissertation consists of three loosely connected essays in applied microeconomics with a special emphasis on social interactions. The first essay uses a sample of tenth-graders drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) to test for the presence of peer-group effects on five different activities: drug use, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, church going, and dropping-out of high school. The empirical analysis reveals strong evidence of peer-group effects at the school level for all activities analyzed. These effects remain after controlling for personal and school characteristics, family background variables, and several measures of parental behavior and parental involvement in their children's daily life. Mild evidence of endogeneity bias is found for two of the five activities analyzed (drug use and alcohol drinking). The second essay studies the interplay between borrowing constraints and intergenerational relations. This essay uncovers compelling evidence showing that the inability of parents to borrow against their children's earnings depresses the earnings of poor children vis-a-vis rich children with the same ability and retards social mobility among the poor. This evidence contradicts several recent studies that argue that innate ability is the overriding determinant of educational attainment in the United States. The essay also shows that siblings inequality seems to be independent of family wealth. This finding is important because it contradicts the predictions of most economic models of resource allocation within the family. The third essay offers an explanation to the escalation of violent crime that occurred in Colombia during the 1980s. The essay considers three implicit models that isolate different types of externalities among criminals. In the first model criminals make crime more appealing to nearby residents by congesting the law enforcement system and hence lowering the probability of punishment. In the second model the interaction of career criminals and local crooks speeds up the diffusion of criminal know-how and criminal technology. In the third model the daily contact of youth with criminal adults and criminal peers results in the erosion of morals and hence in a greater predisposition toward crime. The essay shows that a myriad of empirical evidence--both statistical and anecdotal--lends support to the previous models in general and to the congestion-in-law-enforcement model in particular. [Source: DA]

Henderson, Joyce T. 1998. Why African American Youth Are Attracted to Non-Christian/Non- Traditional Religions & Sects. Bloomington: 1st Books Library.

Jones, Karen Elaine. 1998. "A Study of the Difference between Faith Maturity Scale and Multidimensional Self Concept Scale Scores for Youth Participating in Two Denominational Ministry Projects." Ph.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Dallas.
Abstract: Problem. The problem of this study was to measure the difference between pre-test and post-test scores on the Faith Maturity Scale (FMS) and the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (MSCS) for five groups of youth participating in specified ministry projects. The five groups were females, males, 7th-8th graders, 9th-10th graders, and 11th-12th graders. It was also the problem of this study to measure the difference in FMS and MSCS post-test scores between females and males, and among 7th-8th, 9th-10th, and 11th-12th graders participating in specified ministry projects. Procedures. Faith Maturity Scale and Multidimensional Self Concept Scale pre-tests and post-tests were administered to a convenience sample of youth attending one of five World Changers or World Tour ministry projects during the summer of 1997. Pre-test and post-test instruments were matched and difference scores were computed using t-tests for correlated samples, t-tests for independent samples, and ANOVAs, with significant differences analyzed with Fisher's Protected Least Significant Difference test. There were 852 sets of matched instruments used to compute differences. Findings and conclusion. Faith Maturity Scale and Multidimensional Self Concept Scale post-test scores were significantly higher at the $\alpha$ = 0.05 level for all youth. Female post-test scores on the FMS and the MSCS were significantly higher than male post-test scores. No significant differences in FMS or MSCS post-test scores were measured among the three school grade levels. Additional tests utilizing scores on the Affect, Competence, and Social subscales of the MSCS found no significant differences among the three grade levels. However, females scored significantly higher on the Social and Competence subscales than males. [Source: PI]

Kramer, Robert L. 1998. "Ethnic Identity Development in Jewish Adolescents and the Impact of an Israel Experience." M.A. Thesis, University of Lowell, Lowell.
Abstract: Positive attitudes and a connection to Israel are seen as an important component in Jewish identity. It is widely believed throughout the Jewish community that an Israel experience (a trip to Israel with educational, experiential, and social components) during the adolescent years will enhance Jewish identity. Thirty-nine Jewish adolescents who regularly attend Jewish summer camps were interviewed. Twenty of the subjects had taken part in an Israel experience during the summer of 1997 while the other nineteen have never been to Israel. Subjects were asked open-ended questions about their most memorable Jewish cultural and life experiences, what connected them to the Jewish community, feelings about the Holocaust, whether or not they expected to marry someone Jewish, feelings about Israel, and other questions related to their Jewish identities. This paper employed quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine the impact that the Israel experience had on their Jewish identities. [Source: DA]

Markstrom, C. A., R. C. Berman, and G. Brusch. 1998. "An Exploratory Examination of Identity Formation among Jewish Adolescents According to Context." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 13, pp. 202-222.
Abstract: Identity formation among Jewish adolescents was examined according to a goodness-of-fit model and an exploration- based/perspective-taking model. Forty-eight high school students living in Jewish dominant neighborhoods and 54 high school students living in Jewish nondominant neighborhoods completed measures of ideological, interpersonal, and ethnic forms of identity, self-esteem, and self-acceptance. A series of 2 (Context) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (Grade) ANCOVA procedures (controlling for religious orientation and religious attendance) were performed on subscales of ideological, interpersonal, and ethnic identity. Slight support was shown for the goodness-of-fit model. Ideological identity diffusion was higher among Jewish nondominant participants, and ethnic behaviors and practices and total ethnic identity were higher among Jewish dominant adolescents. There were several significant correlations between ideological and interpersonal forms of identity and self-esteem. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for further research are given. [Source: SC]

Marsh, David B. 1998. "The Influence of Religion and Religious Experiences on Families and Individuals." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This dissertation seeks to elevate the significance of religious experiences in research and analysis, to describe the religious experience of a sample of LDS (Mormon) youth and young adults, and to employ LISREL modeling and analysis to test interrelationships associated with religious experiences. Because of the persistence of reported divine influences in the lives of many individuals and families, their inclusion in scholarly endeavors is argued. Including the role of religious experience in research provides another avenue through which further understanding of individual and family behavior can be sought. LDS adolescents whose families read sacred literature together, pray together, and discuss religious teachings together are more likely to engage in those same behaviors in their personal lives. Those LDS adolescents who practice private religious behaviors are more likely to report religious experiences such as feeling the Spirit of the Lord, knowing what it feels like to repent and be forgiven, and feeling that the Holy Ghost is an important influence in their life. Those LDS adolescents who report experiencing sacred feelings are more likely to continue their private religious behaviors during later adolescence and young adulthood. Family religious behaviors influence the private religious behaviors of adolescents and young adults which, in turn, influence the reception of religious experiences. While attendance at church declines among the sample, the practice of private religious behaviors, and the report of religious experiences increase over time. As respondents age, private religious behaviors and sacred feelings occur at such a coincidental rate that if an individual is experiencing one he or she is likely experiencing the other. Three types of religious experiences are identified: Sacred Feelings, Sacred Experiences, and Sacred Blessings. The majority of the sample report receiving Sacred Feelings (know the feeling of repenting and being forgiven, felt the Spirit in Sacrament meeting; feel that the Holy Ghost is an important influence in their life). A significantly smaller portion of the sample receive Sacred Experiences (voices, visions, angels, or dreams). Most of the sample believe that their Sacred Blessing (Patriarchal Blessing) is a revelation from God to them personally, and experience comfort and guidance from it. [Source: DA]

Ploch, Donald R. and Donald W. Hastings. 1998. "Effects of Parental Church Attendance, Current Family Status, and Religious Salience on Church Attendance." Review of Religious Research vol. 39, pp. 309-320.

Reinhold, Julie S. 1998. "Typologies of Adolescent Religious Orientation in Relation to Ego Development, God Concept, and Social Desirability." Thesis, Pace University, New York.
Abstract: The present investigation is an exploratory study designed to establish typologies of religious orientation in a population of adolescents from religious backgrounds. Additionally, the validity of these constellations has been explored in relation to ego development, God-concept, social desirability, and religious practices. A sample of 182 students from three Parochial schools and a Yeshiva, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old, completed a series of scales measuring religious and psychological variables. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of the subjects responses to the intrinsic and extrinsic scales of Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale - Revised, the consensual scale of the Religious Viewpoints Scale and the quest scale of the Religious Life Inventory resulted in a four cluster solution. These subgroups are identified as Observance, Foreclosed Intrinsic, Skeptical, and Anti-religious. These empirically derived subgroups were then compared on external validity measures including the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, the Gorsuch Adjective Checklist, as well as measures of religious background and behaviors. Analysis of variance were performed on variables of ego development, social-desirability, God-concept, age, religious background and behavior. Chi Square Analysis was used to determine gender differences. Significant differences were found between subgroups on all criteria except gender and social desirability. Overall, the study indicates that adolescents have customary ways of integrating various dimensions of religious experience into their spiritual life in a manner that is consistent with typical adolescent psychological development. In terms of the religious orientation construct and it's measurement, the study demonstrates a more complex interaction of religious orientation dimensions than has previously been seen in the empirical literature. This finding supports the utility of a multi-dimensional approach to assessing the religious orientation construct and exposes limitations of the conventional four-fold classification system which utilizes only the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. [Source: PI]

Scott, Sue M. 1998. "Exploring God-Images of Children: Implications for Pastoral Counseling." Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston.
Abstract: This project analyzes and compares the God-images of three children, each distinguished by a different parental figure: intact, blended, and single parent. Grounding the study in Sallie McFague's model of God as parent, the project employs David Heller's methodology to investigate each child's image of God in a two-hour interview, finding several common themes: sexual identity, female identity development, separation and inequality, intimacy, creation, comforter, authority, and dynamic action. A child's parental experience does inform who God gets to be. [Source: RI]

Sherkat, D. E. 1998. "Counterculture or Continuity? Competing Influences on Baby Boomers' Religious Orientations and Participation." Social Forces vol. 76, pp. 1087-1114.
Abstract: The presumed attractiveness of countercultural orientations to young, educated, baby boomers led many scholars to proclaim the 1960s counterculture as the driving force behind declining religious participation, and a supposed growing distaste for biblical religion. In contrast, theories of religious behavior predict substantial continuity in religious orientations and commitments. Social ties and life course events influence religious beliefs and rates of participation yet these ties and transitions often support traditional religious expressions. I integrate insights from studies of baby boomer religion with more general theories of religious commitment, merging theories of the dual nature of social structures with rational choice perspectives on religious behavior. Using data from the 1965- 1982 Youth Parent Socialization Panel Study, I analyze the relative influence of three factors on baby boomers' religious orientations and participation: (1) traditional agents of socialization (denominations, parents, and schools); (2) life course factors (marriage, divorce, and childrearing); and (3) Participation in the protest movements of the 1960s and early 1970s-a widely cited countercultural protagonist of religious change. I also demonstrate how prior religious orientations directed participation in the counterculture. My analyses show that traditional socialization agents, life course factors, and countercultural participation all play a role in directing future religious orientations and commitments. However, traditional socialization factors have a dominant influence on future religious beliefs and participation. [Source: SC]

Benda, Brent B. 1997. "An Examination of a Reciprocal Relationship between Religiosity and Different Forms of Delinquency within a Theoretical Model." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency vol. 34, pp. 163-186.
Abstract: Results from a study of 1,093 adolescents (aged 13-20 yrs) do not support the argument that property crimes, crimes against persons, and use of alcohol and other drugs are behavior manifestations of an interrelated constellation or syndrome of delinquency. A factor analysis clearly shows that the various forms of delinquency studied load on three distinct factors. In addition, whereas the hypothesized theoretical model does explain considerable variation in frequency of alcohol use and of criminal behavior (22% and 24%, respectively), it does not account for much variance in drug use (6%). Whereas there are reciprocal relationships between religiosity and drug use and religiosity and crime, only the feedback effect of religiosity on alcohol use is significant. These latter findings suggest that future studies need to examine reciprocal relationships and that the relationship between alcohol use and religiosity needs to be re-examined conceptually and empirically in future studies. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1997. "A Test of a Model with Reciprocal Effects between Religiosity and Various Forms of Delinquency Using 2-Stage Least Squares Regression." Journal of Social Service Research vol. 22, pp. 27-52.
Abstract: This was a study of 1,093 9th-12th graders from 6 different public high schools, where the same integrated theoretical model of control and social learning theories fit the data on alcohol use, heavy alcohol consumption, use of marijuana, criminal behavior, sexual exploration, and suicidal thoughts. It was observed that the model explained significantly more variance in some of these forms of delinquency than in others, indicating only equivocal support for the deviance syndrome argument in the literature. This study also found that religiosity was a significant influence only on criminal behavior, whereas the feedback effect of delinquency on religiosity was significant for all forms of delinquent behavior studied. [Source: PI]

Benson, Peter L., Kevin S. Masters, and Larson. David B. 1997. "Religious Influences on Child and Adolescent Development." in Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Vol. 4, Varieties of Development, edited by Joseph D. Noshpitz and Norman E. Alessi. New York: Wiley.

Bourdeau, Marie L. and Darren M. George. 1997. "Changes across Age Groups on Measures of Knowledge, Faith, and Belief of God's Personal Concern." Psychological Reports vol. 80, pp. 1359-1362.
Abstract: 100 Protestant, church-going children were surveyed concerning knowledge about the Bible, faith in God, and belief of God's personal concern. Statistically significant increases were found over five age groups (3-5 yrs, 6-8 yrs, 9-12 yrs, 13-15 yrs, 16-18 yrs) for the three variables: strong increases for knowledge and moderate increases for faith and belief of God's concern. These and other results are discussed. [Source: PI]

Burton, Linda M. 1997. "Ethnography and the Meaning of Adolescence in High-Risk Neighborhoods." Ethos vol. 25, pp. 208-217.
Abstract: Draws on field data & interviews from 186 African American teenagers in nine high-risk neighborhoods in the urban Northeast to illustrate how ethnography can discover elusive, but highly significant, issues concerning adolescent development in context. Data collection was supplemented by analyses of newspapers & interviews with religious, municipal, & community leaders. Findings uncovered three influences that indicated that adolescence had become an ambiguous & illusionary stage of life development in these neighborhoods: (1) an accelerated life course prompted by an anticipated short life expectancy; (2) diffuse age hierarchies that reduced respect for elders; & (3) inconsistent role expectations in family & social organization. [Source: SA]

Charm", Stuart Z. 1997. "Children's Gendered Responses to the Story of Adam and Eve." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion vol. 13, pp. 27-44.

De Haan, Laura G. and John Schulenberg. 1997. "The Covariation of Religion and Politics During the Transition to Young Adulthood: Challenging Global Identity Assumptions." Journal of Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 537-552.
Abstract: Draws on survey data from 209 students at a large midwestern university to investigate the relationship between religious & political beliefs & their combined influence during transition to young adulthood. Findings showed that the most religious individuals had experienced some belief exploration before making a commitment. Those who had not engaged in exploration & had no firm commitment were the least religious. Faith in government proved unrelated to identity development, but high political interest did correlate with high identity achievement scores. No relationship between religious & political identity was apparent, suggesting that components of ideological identity should be considered separately. [Source: SA]

Dickie, Jane R. and Amy K. Eshleman. 1997. "Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Images of God." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 36, pp. 25-43.

Dunlop, Amelia Frances. 1997. "Generation Quest: The Religion of the X Generation." Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Harvard University.

Fosarelli, Patricia. 1997. "Children in Our Midst: Listening to Children Talk About God." Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project examines ways that children, ages six to 11, "speak" about God artistically, orally, and in written responses to a questionnaire. Children "speak" about God in different ways at different ages, and their experiences and responses should shape the ways that adults teach and elicit responses. [Source: RI]

Froehle, Bryan. 1997. Survey of Catholic Youth and Parents Connected with Parish Programs : Findings and Implications for Vocations: A Study Conducted for the N.C.C.B Committee on Vocations with the Support of Serra International Foundation. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate.

King, Valarie, Glen H. Elder, Jr., and Les B. Whitbeck. 1997. "Religious Involvement among Rural Youth: An Ecological and Life-Course Perspective." Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 431-456.
Abstract: Developmental expressions of religion in the lives of youth extend from formal church attendance and ritual involvement to religious beliefs and knowledge, self-identity, and participation in youth groups. Using multiple dimensions of religious development (church attendance, involvement in church activities, felt religiosity, and religious identity), this study investigated data based on 365 adolescents of 2-parent White, rural families from the Iowa Youth and Families Project. Ss were followed from grade 7-10 to explore the developmental pathways across the years of early adolescence, giving particular attention to changing influences among farm and nonfarm rural youth. Adolescents who have grown up on a farm have stronger ties to religious institutions than nonfarm youth, and they express stronger commitments to religious values. The correlates of religious change and continuity indicate that social identities and qualities of the parent-child relationship are important influences. [Source: PI]

Lee, Jerry W., Gail T. Rice, and V. Bailey Gillespie. 1997. "Family Worship Patterns and Their Correlation with Adolescent Behavior and Beliefs." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 36, pp. 372-381.
Abstract: Examined behaviors involved in family worship, how these behaviors cluster together into specific patterns of family worship, and how these patterns of family worship relate to the behaviors and beliefs of adolescents attending Seventh-day Adventist schools. Seven patterns of family worship were detected by cluster analysis of questionnaires completed by 7,658 Seventh-day Adventist youth, grades 6-12. Worship patterns that actively involved youth in reading, praying, and sharing their religious experience were rated as more meaningful and interesting and were associated with higher levels of Active Faith (a factor score). Youth in families with worship patterns that did not actively involve the youth were even lower on Active Faith than youth whose families had no worship. However, No Worship youth were highest on Materialism/Legalism and Alcohol/Drug Use. With one exception, worship patterns with high youth involvement were associated with lower Alcohol/Drug Use and lower Materialism/Legalism. Youth in the Shared Worship group, in which every family member participated in every phase of worship every day, were high on Active Faith but also relatively high on Materialism/Legalism, and Alcohol/Drug use suggesting a pattern of compulsive behavior. [Source: PI]

McNamara, Raymond Timothy. 1997. "Uses of Popular Music by Old Order Amish Youth in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This dissertation defines the general dimensions of popular music use and avoidance by Old Order Amish youth in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Information was primarily obtained through in depth interviews with a variety of respondents including Old Order Amish youth, adults, parents, and persons who were raised Amish but left the church later in life. Several experts in Anabaptist culture were also interviewed. The study found that popular music use by Old Order Amish youth is quite widespread and appears, to varying degrees, in approximately three fourths of the 17 youth groups in the settlement. While music use is prohibited by "The Ordnung", or Amish behavioral code, extensive use of recorded popular music, primarily country and country rock, dancing, and live music by Amish performers has been a staple at many youth group activities, particularly those of the more liberal youth groups, for several decades. While Amish youth report using music primarily as a background to gatherings with friends, much as it is used by mainstream youth, some researchers believe that its use is tolerated by the Amish community because of several cultural "loopholes." The Old Order Amish, as Anabaptists, believe that members must accept the faith as adults in a conscious, mature choice. Experimentation with the "world," though not condoned, is expected as a part of this choice process. Amish adults also realize that the survival of their culture requires the successful baptism of their children. They understand that harsh control and sanctioning of youth could drive them away. Thirdly, Old Order Amish arguments against popular music use by youth are ineffective because traditionally many parents and even ministers used music or played in bands as youth. In short, popular music use by Old Order Amish youth in the Lancaster settlement has become a sort of liminal "rite of passage." Amish youth use popular music in much the same ways as mainstream youth do even though their culture technically prohibits such use because certain basic principles, traditions, and necessities of the Old Order Amish way of life afford them a window of opportunity to do so. [Source: DA]

Mercer, Joyce Ann. 1997. "Gender, Violence, and Faith: Adolescent Girls and a Theological Anthropology of Difference." Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.
Abstract: This dissertation explores gender and faith identities among a group of adolescent girls. Drawing from interview research I bring girls' discourses on gender, violence, and faith into dialogue with feminist theologians. A gap exists between the situations of these adolescent girls and the ability of feminist theologies to speak to their situations because of problems created by overly immanental theologies that cannot deal adequately with difference from a non-essentialist framework. To function in critical and visionary ways in relation to the subject positions of girls in the study group, feminist theologies need a nuanced theory of gender, an alternative perspective on Divine transcendence, a notion of community that protects difference, and a critical utopia. The central question guiding this project concerns how to configure the interplay of sameness and difference in theologically informed perspectives on gendered subjectivity without resulting in either the erasure of difference on the one hand or of relationality on the other. After surveying theories of adolescence, I propose alternative background theories from the works of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Drucilla Cornell, and themes from feminist theologians as alternative perspectives on human personhood highlighting the productive power of discourse and social practices in constructing subjectivities. I develop a feminist qualitative research methodology, asserting the educational and pastoral functions of interview research. A sub-theme of the dissertation concerns the role that education plays in the construction of subjectivity. As a discursive social practice embodying cultural norms and values, education like religion can function negatively, contributing to the production of problematic subject positions for women. Both religion and education also have the potential to function as emancipatory discourses in relation to women's subjectivity. In interviews, girls explored their experiences of the educational roles of parents, schools, and religious communities in relation to becoming a female self. The work concludes with a constructive theological account of human personhood based upon the interviews with girls and their dialogue with feminist theologies, as well as the alternative background theories proposed for construing subjectivity. [Source: DA]

Resch, Barbara J. 1997. "Teens and Church Music." Reformed Worship vol. 44, pp. 4-6.

Santiago, Juan de. 1997. "Recovering the Signifier: New Jack Mormons." Dialogue vol. 30, pp. 47-50.

Toman, James Anthony. 1997. "Dual Identity: Being Catholic and Being Gay." Ph.D. Thesis, Cleveland State University, Cleveland.
Abstract: The aim of this research was to utilize survey methods to investigate the relationship between two important personal identity markers, one's religiosity and one's sexual orientation, and to examine these variables at two points in the life span, retrospectively during youth and concurrently in adulthood. Specifically, the study involved adult males raised in the Catholic tradition and the process of their homosexual identity formation. This research sought to determine if significant relationships exist between: (1) the strength of youthful religious conviction and difficulty experienced during the adolescent coming-out process; (2) formative religious conviction and later ability to achieve an adult gay-affirmative life style; (3) religious conviction in the formative and adult years; (4) the difficulty of coming-out and subsequent adult religious conviction; (5) the difficulty of coming-out and adult capacity to experience a gay-affirmative life style; and (6) adult religious conviction and capacity for a gay-affirmative life style. The 70 respondents in the study were voluntary and their survey responses anonymous. They were recruited either by contact from professionals who work with individuals in the gay community or through advertisements in the gay community and in the gay-oriented media. Analysis of responses utilized quantitative procedures, but respondents also provided narrative answers which added explanatory detail and enriched and clarified the findings and conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that: (a) a significant statistical relationship exists between adolescent religiosity and difficulties encountered in the adolescent coming-out process, and also between adolescent and adult religiosity; and (b) no statistically significant relationship exists between adolescent religiosity and difficulties experienced in achieving a affirmative adult gay life style, between adolescent and adult sexual identity processes, nor between the adolescent coming-out process and adult religiosity. This study further suggests that the interplay of religious and sexual identity factors is a complex one. The data it offers may serve to illuminate for those who work with the gay population some of the important issues through which gay clients must navigate, and to suggest to researchers in the field of religious and sexual orientation identity formation useful directions which further research might take. [Source: PI]

Trenton, Thomas Norman. 1997. "Generation X and Political Correctness: Ideological and Religious Transformation among Students." Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie vol. 22, pp. 417-436.
Abstract: Draws on 1983-1994 questionnaire data from 2,070 first-year sociology students ("Generation X" & "Bust Generation" members) at the U of Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown) to assess changes in students' values & attitudes. Analyses revealed two dimensions - liberalism & puritanism - that were negatively correlated every year; their cross-tabulation produced a four-fold typology labeled leftism, political correctness, traditionalism, & fundamentalism. Political correctness represented a unique blend of a liberalism that supports disadvantaged minorities while upholding institutional moral controls. The dominant ideology shifted from a religiously oriented fundamentalism to a secularly oriented political correctness. Traditionalism all but disappeared, while the secular new leftism remained constant. Political correctness, seen as a dialectic between liberalism & puritanism, is discussed in terms of the larger social context. [Source: SA]

Turner, Reginald A. 1997. "An Examination of the Adolescent African American Male's Attitude Towards the Church and Pastoral Response." Thesis, Andover Newton Theological School.
Abstract: This project recognizes the distinctive religious tendencies of African Americans, manifest in the African American church as the community's longest surviving and most significant social institution. It is therefore useful to determine what contribution the church has made in shaping perceptions of the church among African American youth today and for tomorrow. The project investigates responses of churches and clergy to the growing number of single-parent families and the tensions between adolescent males and the church in the inner city. [Source: RI]

Bradley, Nancy Anne. 1996. "Network Associations and Missionary Service Decisions of Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." M.A. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: This study elaborates on conclusions and implications of the Marie Cornwall research (1985) entitled "Survey of Religion and Life" by attempting to further examine the study with the use of focused qualitative research techniques. Research questions considered network associates' levels of religious involvement as defined by Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint participation (membership, temple service, and missionary service) and the subjects' choice to serve a full-time mission controlling for gender. Thirteen males and fourteen females were interviewed. Findings included a relationship between missionary and non-missionary adult males in regard to their associates' LDS Church membership and temple attendance. Female teens who would serve missions tended to be more religiously active than non-missionaries. Missionaries' religious activities increased from teen to adult years and surpassed those of non-missionaries. While the number of LDS friendships were similar for mission-bound and non-mission-bound teens, such friendships increased for adult missionaries. It was concluded that network association did not play a role in missionary service decisions, but rather missionary service affected network association and religious behavior. [Source: DA]

Dudley, R. L. and H. P. Muthersbaugh. 1996. "Social Attachment to the Seventh-Day Adventist Church among Young Adults." Review of Religious Research vol. 38, pp. 38-50.
Abstract: As part of a ten-year longitudinal study on youth retention in the church, 755 young adults with Seventh-day Adventist backgrounds were surveyed to explore factors that relate to social attachment to the religious community. The sample was distributed throughout the United States and Canada. A reliable Social Attachment Scale was constructed from six items measuring commitment to Jesus, religious faith, the local congregation, and the denomination as well as frequency of attendance at worship services. Attachment was found to be predicted by perceptions of the religious education program in the church, personal involvement in congregational activity, lack of conflict in church areas, and remembrances of childhood experiences with local church lenders. The first two areas proved to be the most important as demonstrated by multiple regression analysis. [Source: SC]

Dunkin, James C. 1996. "The Perspective of Object Relations Theory for Listening to the Image of God in Young Adults." Thesis, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin.
Abstract: Object relations theory focuses on "relationship" as the matrix within which the "self" is formed. The most significant object in becoming a person is the image (object) of God. This project seeks to examine young adults' processes of their "image of God" formation. It offers an overview of object relations theory; a theological reflection on language used to describe "images of God"; an exploration of faith development in young adult years; a discussion of benefits of object relations theory in pastoral counseling; and a discussion on listening to young adults reflect on their "images of God". [Source: RI]

Frangoulis, Sandra, Netta Jordan, and Richard Lansdown. 1996. "Children's Concepts of an Afterlife." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 18, pp. 114-123.

Frank, Naava Leah. 1996. "Adolescent Constructions of Jewishness: The Nesiya 1988 Summer-Trip to Israel." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This thesis portrays adolescent conceptions of Jewishness and the impact of a summer trip to Israel on these conceptions. The sample consists of twenty North American Jewish adolescents attending the 1988 Nesiya trip to Israel for Jewish students in the arts. In-depth interviewing and qualitative methods of analysis were used. Uncertainty, doubt, confusion and searching abound in the data, and indicate the starting point of identity development. Some statements reflect adolescents coming to know themselves more deeply, and are termed "identity statements." Vygotsky's theory of language and thought is used to explain the internalization of such statements from their source in the social world. The potential importance of these "identity statements" is that they seem to provide early signs of the direction students will take upon concluding their adolescent search. A "trajectory," is observable for some students: a slow and evolving course of growth in a particular direction--either towards or away from Jewishness--that takes place over many years and is not easily re-routed. Three phases are defined based on students' descriptions of their Jewish growth over time. During the first phase, "Learning the Judaism of One's Parents," (based on retrospective questions), students are embedded in the value systems of their parents. This phase culminates some time around Bar/Bat Mitzvah. The second phase, "Separating from Early Patterns," begins with the breaking apart of early Jewish conceptions. The student separates from the family's customs and synagogue, struggles with the multiplicity of religious truths, explores ultimate questions, and may feel a discomfort at being Jewish. A variety of previously unexplored Jewish options are examined at this time. During the questioning of the second phase, the family traditions serve as an anchor to stabilize the search. The third phase, "Finding a Jewish Self," is the beginning of finding and feeling comfortable with a chosen Jewish self. Three in-depth cases are presented (one involving an adolescent from a mixed Jewish-non-Jewish marriage). The 1988 Nesiya trip was an important identity intervention experience in that it intensified the process of self-clarification of the students' Jewish identity. [Source: DA]

Glover, Rebecca J. 1996. "Religiosity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Implications for Identity Formation." Psychological Reports vol. 78, pp. 427-431.
Abstract: Examined religiosity in adolescence and young adulthood as a function of age and its implications for identity formation. 70 males and 77 females (aged 14-17 yrs, 18-25 yrs, and 26-30 yrs) were categorized into 3 religious groups: Fundamental, moderate, and liberal. Ss completed the Scale of Religiosity (S. T. Gladding et al, 1981) during church or fellowship functions. Results reveal that the younger Ss had significantly lower scores for religiosity than did the older groups. Ss whose religious group was categorized as fundamental had significantly higher scores for religiosity than those in the other groups. No gender differences were observed. Findings suggest relationships between religiosity and identity formation during adolescence. [Source: PI]

Jeggle Merz, Birgit and John Bowden. 1996. "Children in the Liturgy: Initiation and Participation." Pp. 111-119 in Little Children Suffer, edited by M. Junker-Kenny and Norbert Mette. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.

Kafkafi, Eyal. 1996. "Changes in Ideology During Two Generations of a Zionist Youth Movement." Journal of Israeli History vol. 17, pp. 283-299.

Kay, William K. and Leslie J. Francis. 1996. Drift from the Churches: Attitude toward Christianity During Childhood and Adolescence. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

King, Brian C. 1996. "Lutheran Young People's Societies to 1895." Currents in Theology and Mission vol. 23, pp. 347-355.

LaHurd, Carol Schersten. 1996. "Public and Private Realities: Women, Youth, and Family Traditions." Word & World vol. 16, pp. 143-150.

Markowitz, F. 1996. "''Shopping'' for the Future: Culture Change, Border Crossings, and Identity Options of Jewish Teenagers from the Cis." Ethos vol. 24, pp. 350-373.

Markstrom Adams, Carol and Melanie Smith. 1996. "Identity Formation and Religious Orientation among High School Students from the United States and Canada." Journal of Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 247-261.
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between Marcia's four identity statuses and Allport and Ross' four religious orientations. Study 1 was conducted among 38 Mormon and 47 non-Mormon high school students living in a predominantly Mormon Utah community. Study 2 was conducted among 102 Jewish high school students living in Ontario, Canada. It was revealed through the use of MANCOVA procedures that, in both studies, identity diffusion was associated with the extrinsic religious orientation. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on foreclosure than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups, and the extrinsic scored significantly higher on moratorium than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups in Study 1. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on identity achievement than those classified as extrinsic or nonreligious in Study 2. The indiscriminate proreligious and intrinsic religious orientations were associated with higher scores in three subscales of ethnic identity for the Jewish adolescents. Potential moderating influences of religious orthodoxy, religious attendance, grade, and gender were found to not operate between identity and religious orientation. [Source: PI]

Miller, Craig Kennet. 1996. Postmoderns: The Beliefs, Hopes & Fears of Young Americans (1965-1981). Nashville, Tenn.: Discipleship Resources.

Montgomery, Alice and Leslie J. Francis. 1996. "Relationship between Personal Prayer and School-Related Attitudes among 11-16-Year-Old Girls." Psychological Reports vol. 78, pp. 787-793.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between personal prayer and school- related attitudes with 392 girls (aged 11-16 yrs) attending a single-sex Catholic secondary school. Ss completed 6 semantic differential scales of attitudes toward school and toward lessons concerned with English, music, religion, mathematics, and sports, together with information about paternal employment and their personal practice of prayer. The relationship between personal prayer and attitude toward school after controlling for age and social class was positive. [Source: PI]

Smith, D. Linnet. 1996. "Private Prayer, Public Worship and Personality among 11-15-Year-Old Adolescents." Personality and Individual Differences vol. 21, pp. 1063-1065.
Abstract: A sample of 191 11-15-year-old adolescents completed the short form of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire together with indices of private prayer and public worship habits. The data confirm the view that psychoticism is the dimension of personality fundamental to individual religiosity. [Source: PI]

Tamm, Maare. 1996. "The Meaning of God for Children and Adolescents--a Phenomenographic Study of Drawings." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 19, pp. 33-44.

Wortman, Julie A. 1996. "Holding to the Faith: Young Muslim Women." Witness vol. 79.

Barna, George. 1995. Generation Next: What You Need to Know About Today's Youth. Ventura, Calif., U.S.A.: Regal Books.

Benson, Peter L. 1995. Congregations at Crossroads: A National Study of Adults and Youth in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Currie, David Malcolm. 1995. "Adolescent Spirituality: Relationships among Spiritual Growth Factors, Spiritual Well-Being and Authenticity." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: Enhancing the spiritual growth of teenagers has always been a concern among church youth leaders. Specifically, what factors, designed or assumed to assist in adolescent spiritual development, are the most effective as reported by those persons converted as adolescents? This study sought to determine what relationships exist among the frequency of involvement and the power of influence of twenty factors of spiritual growth and the Paloutzian-Ellison Spiritual Well-being Scale (1982) and the Bassett et al. Shepherd Scale (1981), two instruments designed to measure aspects of spiritual growth; spiritual well-being and spiritual authenticity respectively. Precedent adolescent spirituality literature, current follow-up and discipleship material, a survey of youth professionals, ten Christian life interviews, and a panel of experts served to guide the development of the Spiritual Growth Factor Survey, an updated Likert scale revision of two previous works by Zuck and Getz (1968) and Lamport (1989). One hundred and seventy-three subjects from three denominational groups in British Columbia, Canada, participated in the study who were converted during their teen years (thirteen to nineteen inclusive) and currently twenty-nine years or younger. The survey was analyzed using comparison of means and the Pearson correlation coefficient procedures. The results indicate low, positive correlation for seven of the twenty factors when correlated with scores of the Spiritual Well-Being and Shepherd Scales (in rank order: church services, personal Bible reading, personal time with God in prayer, serving in the church, personally sharing faith, the influence of Christian music, the influence of spiritual growth books). Clear gender differences surface regarding factors of greatest spiritual influence. Multiple cross-tabulations yielded a variety of other correlations that enhance the understanding of the effectiveness of the twenty spiritual growth factors on those converted as adolescents. Numerous implications for adolescent spiritual development are given. [Source: DA]

Dudley, Carl S. 1995a. "Young-Adult Power in Afro-American Congregation." Christian Ministry vol. 26.

Dudley, Roger L. 1995b. "Grace, Relevancy, and Confidence in the Future: Why Adventist Young Adults Commit to the Church." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 14, pp. 215-227.

Ford, Kevin Graham and James D. Denney. 1995. Jesus for a New Generation: Putting the Gospel in the Language of Xers. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

Giesbrecht, Norman. 1995. "Parenting Style and Adolescent Religious Commitment." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 14, pp. 228-238.
Abstract: Explored the relationship of parental religious commitment, parenting styles and spousal agreement in parenting style to adolescent religious commitment. 132 adolescents and their parents completed the Intrinsic-Extrinsic (Revised) Scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Cornell Parent Behavior Description. It was found that parental religious commitment was not significantly related to adolescents' religious commitment. A permissive parenting style was significantly related to extrinsic social commitment, mainly among male Ss. Cluster analysis revealed 4 distinct adolescent religious profiles. It was concluded that an authoritative and supportive parenting style and spousal agreement in parenting style appeared to be instrumental in fostering intrinsic religious commitment among adolescents. [Source: PI]

Helwig, Charles C. 1995. "Adolescents' and Young Adults' Conceptions of Civil Liberties: Freedom of Speech and Religion." Child Development vol. 66, pp. 152-166.
Abstract: To examine conceptions of freedom of speech & religion, 48 adolescents & young adults in 3 grade levels were administered a structured interview containing assessments of civil liberties in general, in straightforward (unconflicted) applications, & in conflict with other social & moral concerns, including law, physical & psychological harm, & equality of opportunity. Findings show that freedom of speech & religion were conceptualized as universal rights & applied to social events in unconflicted contexts; a diverse array of rationales, differentiated according to type of freedom, were used to ground conceptions of universal freedoms. Judgments of civil liberties in conflicts exhibited several sources of variation, including developmental differences, situational or contextual variation determined by the particular types of issues in conflict, & individual differences. Results are consistent with the proposition that judgments of civil liberties reflect age-related patterns of coordination of delimited social & moral concepts rather than general orientations. [Source: SA]

Kidd, Timothy W. 1995. "Psychosocial Development through Service-Learning: Enhanced Spiritual Consciousness in Workcamp Experience." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: The problem examined in this research was the identification and description of the distinctive components associated with the Christian youth workcamp experience found to promote the psychosocial development of church youth participants and the linkages to enhanced spiritual consciousness. The unit of analysis for this multi-case study was the Christian youth workcamp. The criteria used for selection of the three cases examined were: (1) location within the Appalachian region; (2) philosophy and practice consistent with service-learning principles; (3) emphasis upon facilitating spiritual development; and (4) logistical concerns. Thirty-four subjects were selected from three church youth groups, each attending one of the three workcamps. Data was gathered through the following methods: (1) a time sequenced series of four semi-structured interviews conducted individually with each of the thirty-four subjects; (2) participant-observation during the total experience at each of the three workcamps, including church based experience conducted before and after; and (3) collection and analysis of relevant documents. The descriptions of the experience drawn from the research offered valuable insights into the subjects's perceptions of their participation in the workcamp. The small size and nature of the sample preclude statistical generalizations to the larger population. Nevertheless, the following conclusions have been advanced for further research: (1) Participation in a Christian youth workcamp experience can promote psychosocial maturity by contributing to increased self-reliance and self-esteem, a greater ability to empathize with others, a stronger appreciation for community, greater concern for the needs of others, and a greater commitment to serving others. (2) The increased ability to empathize with others is correlated with an enhanced spiritual consciousness. (3) The particular aspect of spiritual perception (i.e., cognitive, affective, or volitional) [Source: PI]

Levitt, Mairi. 1995. "Sexual Identity and Religious Socialization." British Journal of Sociology vol. 46, pp. 529-536.
Abstract: Examined the effect of religious socialization on gender differences in beliefs, attitudes, and practice with 38 children followed from age 10 to 17 yrs old and their families. Christian beliefs and practices were not usually seen by mothers as relevant to everyday life, even if they were churchgoers, but were desirable for young children. Church schools providing aspects of Christianity mothers want for their children are popular, but more specific Christian teaching can lead to fears of indoctrination. Girls had more positive attitudes toward religion and higher levels of belief than did boys, just as Ss' mothers were more interested in religion than their fathers and more likely to attend a church. Mothers' central values of individualism, autonomy, and freedom mitigate against commitment to any Christian denomination and lead them to abhor any attempt to influence their own or their children's religiosity above the normal level. [Source: PI]

Lewis, Christopher Alan. 1995. "Teenage Religion and Values." Irish Journal of Psychology vol. 16, pp. 192-193.

Lewis, David, Carley Dodd, and Darryl Tippens. 1995. The Gospel According to Generation X--the Culture of Adolescent Faith. Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press.

Logan, John. 1995. "Insider-Outsider: Sacramental Theology through the Eyes of Children and Young People." Pp. 160-168 in The Candles Are Still Burning : Directions in Sacrament and Spirituality, edited by M. Grey, Andr"e Heaton, and Danny Sullivan. Collegeville, Minn: Liturgical Press.

Lybeck, Jennette and Cynthia J. Neal. 1995. "Do Religious Institutions Resist or Support Women's "Lost Voices?"." Youth and Society vol. 27, pp. 4-28.
Abstract: Examined how the concept of the "lost voice" functions in religious circles. 30 female Ss were divided into 3 age groups (ages 8-20, 12-24 and 20-30 yrs) and equally distributed between a conservative evangelical church that promotes traditional women's roles and a mainline evangelical church that professes egalitarian views of women's roles. Ss were individually interviewed. Results show that the younger Ss from both churches reported sacrificing themselves and their opinions in order to maintain relationships. Further, adult women from the egalitarian church evidenced a regaining of their voices and perceived this as a newly found strength. Adult women from the conservative church also evidenced a regaining of their voices and yet perceived this as a weakness. [Source: PI]

Marshall, Sheila K. and Carol Markstrom Adams. 1995. "Attitudes on Interfaith Dating among Jewish Adolescents: Contextual and Developmental Considerations." Journal of Family Issues vol. 16, pp. 787-811.
Abstract: Examined Jewish adolescents' attitudes toward inter-faith dating (ID), and the contextual and developmental variables influencing them. 106 Ss (aged 14-28 yrs) were interviewed using the Religious Experience Survey, to investigate issues related to their being a religious minority, social relations, perceptions of prejudice and attitudes toward religion. Ss also completed the Imaginary Audience Scale and Perspective Taking Scale as measures of social-cognitive development. Results show that the Jewish majority and minority context was a crucial factor in adolescent ID relationships. Religious orientation, religious participation, and gender were also salient factors. Developmental factors were not found to play strong predictive roles in respect to attitudes toward ID. Findings suggest that adolescents formed attitudes about ID that facilitated the filtering and selection of desirable partners. [Source: PI]

Murphy, Carolyn Hanna. 1995. "Circling the Wagons: Conceptions of Science and Religion Held by Middle Adolescents and Implications for Critical Thinking." Ed.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: The American educational climate of the 1990's is affected, and perhaps determined, by a "culture war," presently waged within the society around such issues as the nature of science and religion and how each is defined and taught in the schools. This study correlated American students' current low levels of science literacy and their lack of adequate application of critical thinking skills with inadequate teaching of science and religion. This is thought to threaten the survival of needed democratic values and skills, abilities needed by the rising generation of American youth. The purposes of this study were to ascertain the conceptions of science and religion held by middle adolescent youth, to determine the sources of their conceptions, to determine whether there were major anomalies between science and religion in the minds of the students, and to see how these concepts of science and religion fostered or hindered the use of critical thinking skills. The ethnographic study focused on eight evangelical Christian students who attended a Christian school and a public school. The study included content analysis of interviews, documents, observations, and a questionnaire of students. Also interviewed were parents, ministers, teachers and a school administrator. The data were analyzed using feminist critical theory from the perspective of a Baha'i earth science teacher. Feminist critical theory proposes that at the center of religious literalism lies patriarchy, which is ultimately harmful to both sexes. Patriarchy was seen as preventing the acceptance of diverse voices by limiting language, by narrowly defining religious meanings and by discounting metaphorical understandings and biblical hermeneutics, all of which hinder both the unity of men and women and the harmonization of science and religion. The data showed that the conceptions held by the students were largely determined by their overriding belief in a literal interpretation of the Bible which acted to hinder their ability to critically assess scientific and religious claims to truth. The public school was also found to hinder the teaching of evolution and the use of critical thinking through fear of arousing criticism from conservative Christian cultures. [Source: DA]

Muthersbaugh, H. Phillip. 1995. "Attachment and the Church: Toward an Understanding of Bonding for Youth as Applied to Their Relationship to the Seventh-Day Adventist Church." Thesis, Seventh Day Adventist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The present study explores the factors that relate to attachment of bonding to the religious community. Two questionnaires were used in a quantitative analysis: Parental Bonding Instrument (modified), and the Valuegenesis survey. The findings revealed that bonding factors for Adventist young people can be determined. A reliable bonding scale was constructed from six items measuring commitment to Jesus, religious faith, the local congregation, and the denomination as well as frequency of attendance at worship services. The scale had a reliability alpha of .81 with item scale correlations ranging from .45 to .72. All but one correlation were significant at the p .001 level. [Source: RI]

Paloutzian, Raymond F. and Lee A. Kirkpatrick. 1995. "Introduction: The Scope of Religious Influences on Personal and Societal Well-Being." Journal of Social Issues vol. 51, pp. 1-11.
Abstract: Introductory essay for a special journal issue focusing on religious influences. Religious belief & behavior have farreaching influences on personal & social life, in both beneficial & deleterious ways. Religious influences on a variety of aspects of well-being, broadly defined to include both personal & societal levels of analysis, are examined. Religion & well-being are both multifaceted constructs, & the empirical relationships between them are highly complex. A diverse sampling of conceptualizations of well-being (coping, mental health, physical health, & substance abuse & recovery), social issues & problems (religion-related & ritualistic child abuse, prejudice & right-wing authoritarianism, & human immunodeficiency virus infection), & special populations (adolescents & the elderly) are presented. [Source: SA]

Penner, James Allan. 1995. "Adolescent Religious Disposition in Canada: An Exploratory Sociological Analysis." M.A. Thesis, University of Lethbridge (Canada), Lethbridge.
Abstract: Taking as a given the general decline of organized religion in Canada, this thesis attempts to document the present lack of commitment towards organized religion among adolescents. Four questions are explored: (1) how committed are Canada's adolescents towards organized religion relative to other social options? (2) to what degree has religious commitment among Canadian adolescents shifted over time? (3) in what ways does adolescent religious commitment vary according to religious group? and (4) do adolescent religiosities patterns follow those of adults? The major findings of this study, based on national Project Teen Canada and Project Canada data, is that organized religion is seldom experienced or valued by the vast majority of Canadian youth. Furthermore, adolescent religious commitment decreased from 1984 to 1992. Conservative Protestants reported higher religious commitment than did other youth and adolescent religiosity generally reflected adult levels. Lastly, tentative evidence suggests that Canada may experience future social consequences if adolescent religious disinterest continues. Despite being tentative and exploratory in nature, it is believed that the thesis gives social scientists their first national, in depth, sociological analysis of Canadian youth and organized religion. As such the findings provide a solid launching pad for further research. The thesis concludes with a plea for innovative study of Canadian adolescent religiosity and offers a list of potential projects. [Source: DA]

Pulcini, Theodore. 1995. "Values Conflict among American Muslim Youth." Pp. 178-203 in Muslim Minorities in the West, edited by Syed Abedin and Ziauddin Sardar. London: Grey Seal.

Ryan, Maurice and William J. Foster. 1995. "Mass Attendance and Faith Development in Catholic Adolescents: Exploring Connections." Journal of Christian Education vol. 38, pp. 47-57.

Stolzenberg, R. M., M. Blairloy, and L. J. Waite. 1995. "Religious Participation in Early Adulthood: Age and Family- Life Cycle Effects on Church Membership." American Sociological Review vol. 60, pp. 84-103.
Abstract: We attempt to integrate, elaborate, and test competing theories of why religious participation increases with age during young adulthood. We reconceptualize age and family formation as interacting causes of religious participation rather than competing explanations of it. We expand the concept of family formation to include divorce, cohabitation, and dissolution of cohabitational relationships. We distinguish attitudes toward the family from family formation behavior We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, which traces church membership to age 32. Our results show that the effect of children on church membership varies with the combination of the children's and parent's ages. We find separate effects of family formation behavior and attitudes toward the family. Cohabitation, divorce, and dissolution of cohabitational unions all affect membership probability, but these effects vary with age and are often different for men and women. [Source: SC]

Subkoviak, Michael J., Robert D. Enright, Ching Ru Wu, and Elizabeth A. Gassin. 1995. "Measuring Interpersonal Forgiveness in Late Adolescence and Middle Adulthood." Journal of Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 641-655.
Abstract: The construct of interpersonal forgiveness was operationalized and tested with 197 late-adolescent college students and 197 of their same-gender parents in the Midwestern US. Ss completed the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), a background information scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, measures of religiosity and social desirability, and a 1-item forgiveness question. The EFI showed strong internal consistency reliability. The EFI correlated significantly and negatively with anxiety, particularly when a S was experiencing deep hurt in a developmentally relevant area. Age differences also were observed. College students were less forgiving and had more anxiety than their same-gender parents, particularly when the hurt concerned a developmentally relevant area. [Source: PI]

Sullivan, Danny. 1995. ""to Such as These the Kingdom of Heaven Belongs": Children's Spirituality and Our Contemporary World." Pp. 137-146 in The Candles Are Still Burning, edited by M. Grey, Andr"e Heaton, and Danny Sullivan. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press.

Beck, Gary L. 1994. "Discipleship Principles Applied to Confirmation Ministry." Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield.
Abstract: Confirmation ministry is most effective when discipling confirmands than merely teaching them the content of the Christian faith. Biblical principles of discipleship are presented from two main sources: The Master Plan of Evangelism by Robert Coleman, and Jesus Christ Disciple Maker by Bill Hull. The historical background and theological rationale for confirmation is presented, as well as an analysis of the physical, cognitive, emotional, social, moral, and faith development of thirteen- and fourteen-year olds. Interviews were conducted with representatives of five Lutheran churches with unique confirmation programs. Discipling confirmands stimulates growth in their relationship with the Lord. [Source: RI]

Chia, Edmund K. F. and Chwan Shyang Jih. 1994. "The Effects of Stereotyping on Impression Formation: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Viewing Religious Persons." Journal of Psychology vol. 128, pp. 559-565.
Abstract: Examined the effects of stereotyping on impression formation when encountering people dressed to represent a religious faith. Stimulus photographs portrayed 8 male and female models dressed casually and 1 male and 1 female model in religious attire. From each set of photos, Ss (82 students from a US Catholic high school, 68 from a US public high school, and 84 from a Malaysian Muslim secondary school) selected a photo of the person with whom they would associate the positive personality traits suggested by stimulus questions. All Ss attributed more positive traits to photos of the models who were religiously attired than to the control photos, but Ss from the US schools attributed more positive traits to the photos of religiously dressed models than did Ss from the Malaysian school. [Source: PI]

D"az Stevens, Ana Mar"a. 1994. "Latino Youth and the Church." Pp. 278-307 in Hispanic Catholic Culture in the Us, edited by J. Dolan and Allan Figueroa Deck. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Janssen, Jacques, Joep De Hart, and Marcel Gerardts. 1994. "Images of God in Adolescence." International Journal for the Psychology of Religion pp. 105-121.

Johnson, Carolyn. 1994. "God in the Inner City." Religious Education vol. 89, pp. 502-514.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on religious education and child abuse. A study examined the responses of five inner-city adolescents to a revised set of questions taken from David Heller's book The Children's God. At the time of the study, the adolescents were preparing for the sacrament of Christian Initiation. The questions explored the adolescents' images of, belief in, and feelings toward a deity they firmly believe in. The adolescents expressed their views through taped interviews, note writing, and drawing. The responses were analyzed, and the results demonstrated a spirituality reflective of the inner-city environment where the adolescents were born and raised. The adolescents represented their deity as a powerful male God who serves as protector and guide, one who bestows them with love and security, challenges them, and has faith in them as no one else does. The writer expresses the hope that these responses represent the views of the multitudes of inner-city youth whose opinions often go unheard. [Source: EA]

Markstrom Adams, Carol, Greta Hofstra, and Kirk Dougher. 1994. "The Ego-Virtue of Fidelity: A Case for the Study of Religion and Identity Formation in Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 453-469.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between 2 variables of religiosity (religious minority status and church attendance), identity status, and fidelity among 36 Mormon adolescents and 47 Catholic and Protestant adolescents in Grades 9-22. Ss provided information about church attendance and completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status (EOM-EIS), which measured both interpersonal and ideological forms of identity. Among Mormon Ss, fidelity (observed through heightened commitment illustrated in foreclosure) obtained greater expression. Weekly church attenders also scored higher in interpersonal foreclosure, but scored lower in ideological diffusion. For Mormon Ss, church attendance was related to higher identity achievement, while for non-Mormons, less frequent church attendance was related to higher identity achievement. [Source: PI]

Ortiz Torres, Blanca. 1994. "The Ecology of Empowerment for at-Risk Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, New York University.
Abstract: The study examined: (1) the measurement of empowerment, in terms of psychological and behavioral dimensions; (2) the relationship of reported participation in microsystems and empowerment; and (3) how the effects of participation differ by race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of poor, urban, and culturally diverse youth. The psychological dimension of empowerment was indexed by academic and social efficacy expectations and self- esteem. Behavioral empowerment was assessed by examining adolescents' negotiation strategies with important aspects of their social environment. Transactions with microsystems was measured by the frequency of involvement/participation with five critical microsystems: family, peers, school, church and neighborhood. Data were drawn from a longitudinal investigation of the pathways to adaptive and maladaptive outcomes of adolescents from at-risk schools in Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and New York (N = 1333). The sample was 58% female. The ethnic composition was 27% Black, 23% White, 38% Latino, 3% Black/Latino, 6% Asian, and 3% other. Results showed that empowerment was composed of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Males reported higher psychological empowerment than females. Females were more effective in their interpersonal negotiation skills; that is showed higher levels of behavioral empowerment. Blacks and Whites adolescents did not significantly differ in psychological empowerment levels; it was Blacks and Latinos who differed in this outcome. Latinos reported the lowest levels of psychological empowerment. Involvement and participation in activities with peers was the most important predictor of behavioral empowerment across groups. This relationship was always negative: the more involvement with peers, the less behaviorally empowered. For Blacks and Whites involvement/participation in none of the microsystems seemed to facilitate psychological empowerment. For Latinos, family involvement is positively related to psychological empowerment for both males and females. Family was an important predictor of behavioral empowerment only for White females. For Black females, involvement with the neighborhood was positively associated with behavioral empowerment. Within the Latino female group, church involvement was negatively related to behavioral empowerment. [Source: DA]

Tamminen, Kalevi. 1994. "Religious Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence: A Viewpoint of Religious Development between the Ages of 7 and 20." International Journal for the Psychology of Religion pp. 61-85.

Vanderbeek, Herbert Anthony. 1994. "Religious Identity Formation and Adolescent Friendships in a Tight-Knit Social Group." M.A. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: Erikson argued that identity formation represents the central developmental task for adolescents. Two processes, i.e., exploration (E) and commitment (C), contribute to identity formation. The high versus low levels of exploration and commitment determines the nature of an adolescent's identity status: (a) Identity Achievement (high E, high C); (b) Foreclosure (low E, high C); (c) Moratorium (high E, low C); (d) Identity Diffusion (low E, low C). The adolescent's social environment encourages/discourages exploration and commitment. Erikson felt that tight-knit social groups would favour Foreclosure by discouraging exploration and by encouraging commitment. Following Erikson's theoretical framework, the thesis examines the relationship between identity formation, adolescent friendship patterns and religious commitment in two samples: (a) students attending an ethnically (Dutch) and religiously (Christian Reformed) homogeneous college characterized by tight-social networks; (b) an unselected sample of Manitoba university students. [Source: DA]

Belopopsky, Alexander. 1993. "Youth as Part of the People of God." Ecumenical Review vol. 45, pp. 421-425.

Brisben, David Edward. 1993. "Adolescent Spirituality: Relationships among Adolescent Self-Esteem, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescent Spiritual Well-Being." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: Purpose. This research investigated the relationships among the factors of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being for older adolescents in the evangelical community. Two other factors in the family environment were identified in the research literature as important to a person's spiritual well-being. These factors, parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation, were also examined as to their interaction effect on the three previously mentioned interval variables. This study, unlike previous studies, has statistically analyzed the relationship between the level of constructive communication perceived by the adolescent in the parent-adolescent relationship and the sense of spiritual well-being experienced by the adolescent. Secondly, this study has statistically examined the interaction effect of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation on the adolescent's spiritual well-being. Procedure. This correlational research focused on certain indicators of the spiritual well-being of older adolescents (16-20 years) within the evangelical, Christian community. The sample population of the study was made up of 202 volunteers selected from three Christian colleges and nine evangelical churches in the southeastern United States. Data were collected by having the subjects complete three testing instruments (the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Bienvenu Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, and the Paloutzian-Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and a demographic questionnaire. The correlational method of statistical analysis utilizing the Pearson product moment correlation was employed to measure the degree of relationship between the variables of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being. The causal-comparative method of statistical analysis utilizing t-tests was then employed to test for significance in relationships between the above mentioned criterion variables and their interaction with categorical variables of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation. Findings. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that there is a low, positive correlation between the variables of parent-adolescent communication and adolescent spiritual well-being and a moderate, positive correlation between the variables of self-esteem and spiritual well-being for the adolescents in this study. Moreover, the findings indicated that the parent's religious orientation is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's spiritual well-being and the adolescent's self-esteem than is the parent's marital status. Finally, the findings indicated that there is a different set of predictor variables for adolescents with divorced parents than for adolescents with intact parents and that the variable of self-esteem is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's sense of spiritual well-being for adolescents with divorced parents than it is for adolescents with intact parents. [Source: DA]

Dudley, Roger L. 1993. "Indicators of Commitment to the Church: A Longitudinal Study of Church-Affiliated Youth." Adolescence vol. 28, pp. 21-28.
Abstract: Studied the factors that determine which late adolescents drop out of the church and which remain committed to it by examining 3rd- and 4th-yr questionnaires of 859 17-29 yr old Seventh-Day Adventist youth. Ss were part of a 10-yr study that originally involved over 1,500 Ss distributed throughout the US and Canada. Commitment was found to be related to cognitive, experiential, and activity dimensions of religion. Ethical considerations, a perception of one's importance to the local congregation, and peer influence also played a part in the stepwise regression package, which accounted for half of the variance in commitment scores. [Source: PI]

Fontaine, John S. 1993. "Young Adult Participation in the Afro-American Baptist Church in Richmond, Virginia." Thesis, Boston University School of Theology.
Abstract: This thesis project investigates the Afro-American young adult attendance and participation in the Afro-American Baptist Church in Richmond, Virginia, over the past 20 years. Research for this project is generated from reference material and literature, interviews with religious leaders and other professionals, and questionnaires completed by young adult members of Baptist and non-denominational churches, and by young adults who no longer attend Baptist churches. The last two decades have seen an increase in young adult participation in the Afro-American Baptist Church due to active efforts by the church to provide young adults with incentives to maintain membership. [Source: RI]

Francis, L.J. and H.M. Gibson. 1993. "Parental Influence and Adolescent Religiosity: A Study of Church Attendance and Attitude toward Christianity among Adolescents 11 to 12 and 15 to 16 Years Old." The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion vol. 3, pp. 241-253.

Gannon, Thomas M. 1993. "Conscience First, Tradition Second: A Study of Young American Catholics." Review of Religious Research vol. 34, pp. 375-376.

Matusiewicz, Raymond Leonard. 1993. "The Meaning of Adolescent Membership Behavior: A Qualitative Approach to Action Research in a Religious Organization." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts.
Abstract: A function of organized religion thought crucial to the maintenance of society is the passing of societal values to the young. Yet membership and participation in mainline religious organizations has been in decline since the 1960's, a fact attributed to teenage youth rejecting the institutional expression of religion. The assumption that religious dropout behavior is a normal process of adolescent development has limited the focus of social science research. Missing in this account is the actor's subjective perspective. What is needed in order to understand the forces that govern membership behavior is an exploration of the concept structure that constitutes the psychological life space of the adolescent participant. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective meaning of church membership from the viewpoint of eight religiously active adolescents. As the first step in an action research process in organizational development, the study utilized the long ethnographic interview as a qualitative approach to problem solving by focusing on the organizational actor's inside perspective as the primary source of data. The interpretation of this data then served as the diagnostic stage of action research laying the ground work for future participatory planned change. The data in this study supported survey research that showed religious interest is strong among adolescents. The findings suggest that among church youth, both a high level of religious belief and a high level of social relationship serve as positive reinforcers in maintaining church involvement. Parents modeling religious behavior who set their children on a religious path, yet allow them to choose their own level of religious involvement in adolescence, seem to promote a process of values clarification among church youth that results in a positive religious attitude and active participation. Moreover, church youth who see a lack of tangible results in religious behavior, feel invulnerable, or have little familial support in the face of socio-economic demands for their time, are more likely to be persuaded by peer pressure than familial influence, and are more likely to disengage from religious practice. [Source: DA]

Plympton, Tia Jean. 1993. "Street Family Contexts: An Ethnographic Study of Homeless Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene.
Abstract: The purpose of this ethnographic study was to gain an understanding of the experience of displaced youths within their natural environment while living the lifestyles of their street culture. The subjects of this study were informants who self- identified as street youth by virtue of having lived on the street at any point in time. Data were collected using the field methods of overt observation and included occasional participation in the culture. There was a seven-month period in the field which included the streets and youth hang-outs in a city with a population of 500,000. The collected field notes contained a range of quotes from one-time, spontaneous conversations through and including the statements from nine youths who were engaged in at the least one guided interview. The data were analyzed using axial coding within a grounded theory approach. The ordinal foci were the existence and nature of the street family contexts followed by their functional properties and dimensions. Primarily, the experience of street families can be understood as a reification employed by many youths in this study. Functions of the street families included the properties of: seeking responsibility, developing egalitarian relationships, having a recreational unit, finding opportunities to contribute, and building a personal agency. The listed mythological features of the street family were: origins, myths to live by, heroes of the past, religion, art, and social classification schemes. Recommendations for further research included to gain an understanding of the different ways youths employ the street family context versus the way youths utilize the nurturing contexts of the service structures and agencies. Additionally, there is a need for further study of the differences among the youths' patterns of dependence on and commitment to the street family contexts. [Source: DA]

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C. and Peter L. Benson. 1993. Youth in Protestant Churches. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Wright, Loyd S., Christopher J. Frost, and Stephen J. Wisecarver. 1993. "Church Attendance, Meaningfulness of Religion, and Depressive Symptomatology among Adolescents." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 559-568.
Abstract: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 208 male and 243 female 9th-22th graders. The instrument used contained the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and items to determine the participant's gender, frequency of church attendance, and meaningfulness of one's religion. Based on social support research and the writings of Jung (1932, 1933) and V. Frankl (1959), it was predicted that those who attended church frequently and those who viewed their religions as providing meaning for their lives would have lower BDI scores than their classmates. The findings supported these predictions. [Source: PI]

Bower, Peter C. (ed.). 1992. "Children as Participants in Corporate Worship." Reformed Liturgy and Music vol. 26, pp. 2-46.
Abstract: Grow up and become children, by P C Bower. Children in the worshiping community, by D Ng. The developing child at worship, by M A Fowlkes. Worship that welcomes children, by V C Thomas. Children and the sacraments: baptism and the Lord's Supper, by W B Lane. Children's choirs as participants (not performers) in corporate worship, by M M Macaulay. Music resources for children in worship, by J Dardiganian. Children and the liturgical year: reflections on practical application, by L D Vandercook. Encouraging children to hear the word of God, by D Ng. Helping children learn to worship, by C W Logan. Worship rated G: two case studies of opening the sanctuary to children, by D B Batchelder. What to do after the third Sunday of the new thing, by T J Wardlaw. Journeys of faith: a guide for confirmation-commissioning--a review, by K L Smith. Hymns to grow on, by J D Cain. Welcoming children in worship, by N R Nichols. Hymns for all of God's children, by J F Patterson. Let's do something for the children, by R E Reinovsky. [Source: RI]

Erickson, Joseph A. 1992. "Adolescent Religious Development and Commitment: A Structural Equation Model of the Role of Family, Peer Group, and Educational Influences." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 31, pp. 131-152.
Abstract: Tests a conceptual model of adolescent religious belief and commitment that is informed by recent advances in measurement theory and scale construction (R. L. Gorsuch and G. D. Venable, 1983). The model draws on M. Cornwall's (1988) study of Mormon adult religious development. The model was examined by looking at the linear structural relations from the covariance matrix of relations in a survey of the religious attitudes and behavior of 900 Ss (aged 16-28 yrs). Results suggest that adolescent religious development is triggered by home religious habits and religious education, while the influence of parents and peers is less important than previously suggested. [Source: PI]

Francis, Leslie J. and Alice Montgomery. 1992. "Personality and Attitudes Towards Christianity among Eleven to Sixteen Year Old Girls in a Single Sex Catholic School." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 14, pp. 114-119.

Gallup, George and Robert Bezilla. 1992. The Religious Life of Young Americans: A Compendium of Surveys on the Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Teen-Agers and Young Adults. Princeton, New Jersey: The George H. Gallup International Institute.

Gamoran, Adam. 1992. "Religious Participation and Family Values among American Jewish Youth." Contemporary Jewry vol. 13, pp. 44-59.
Abstract: Data from 457 Jewish participants in the 1980 High School & Beyond survey are used to explore the link between religious involvement & family orientation among American Jewish teenagers. Results show that students who are synagogue & youth group leaders tend to be more family-centered than nonparticipants. But this assocation cannot be attributed to the effects of participation per se, for it is found to exist before the reported involvement took place. Students who became youth group leaders were already more family-oriented by their sophomore year of high school. It is therefore hypothesized that the relation between religiosity & family views results from acceptance of Jewish tradition in general, which places strong emphasis on the family. [Source: SA]

Short, Geoffrey and Bruce Carrington. 1992. "The Development of Children's Understanding of Jewish Identity and Culture." School Psychology International vol. 13, pp. 73-89.
Abstract: Explored the development of children's understanding of Jewish identity and culture using a structured interview with 28 8- and 9-yr-olds (Group 1), 28 10- and 11-yr-olds (Group 2), and 32 12- and 13-yr-olds (Group 3). Some Group 1 Ss had virtually no concept of a Jew, and among those who did there was some confusion. Many Group 2 Ss had the capacity to define "Jewishness" with sufficient complexity to have an understanding of anti-Semitism. Group 3 Ss displayed only superficial knowledge of the Jewish religion, even though they had visited a local synagogue during the previous year. In comparison with Group 2 Ss, Group 3 Ss appear to be aware of anti-Semitic stereotypes relating to personality (e.g., stinginess), and more of them are reluctant to conceive of Jewish identity in anything other than religious terms. [Source: PI]

Ward, Pete. 1992. Youth Culture and the Gospel. London: Marshall Pickering.

Whyte, Wallace E. 1992. "Community and the Transmission of Faith." Thesis, Knox College.
Abstract: This thesis is about a qualitative and phenomenological study of eight young adults with living faith and active participation in their faith community. It was discovered that the friendship and intergenerational relationships within the church which they experienced in childhood and adolescence contributed significantly to the generation and development of their faith, second only to the impact of their parents and family life. It was concluded that the quality of relationships within two communities, faith and family, have as much or more significance related to Christian education as the extent and quality of formal instruction. [Source: RI]

Wilcock, Robert Orvel. 1992. "Adolescent Influences on Young Adult Religious Family Values." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: Using longitudinal design this research assessed the degree to which an adequate conceptualization and measurement of religious family values could be conducted. Questionnaire responses from 560 young adult LDS Males, originally studies in 1981, were analyzed revealing a cluster of values centering around family home evening, scripture study, family prayer, and moral behavior formed one dimension of religious family values. Three other related value dimensions were also identified, viz. birth control, divorce, working mother. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that the family, peer, and religious influences all contributed to explaining variation in young adult religious family values. Adolescent religiosity emerged as an important intervening variable which also influenced whether or not the young man chose to serve a mission for the church. Of the exogenous variables, home religious observance was the single most important influence on young adult religious family values. The direct effect over nine years suggests the strength of family socialization in a specific relationship to special values. These findings have important implications for those wanting to better understand how religious, familial, and peer influences combine to shape the adolescent's world, which in turn influences young adult religious family values some nine years later. [Source: DA]

Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. 1991. "Parents and Youth: Perceiving and Practicing Islam in North America." Pp. 132-147 in Muslim Families in North America, edited by Earle H. Waugh, Sharon McIrvin Abu-Laban, and Regula Burckhardt Qureshi. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

Bovasso, Gregory, John Jacobs, and Salomon Rettig. 1991. "Changes in Moral Values over Three Decades, 1958-1988." Youth and Society vol. 22, pp. 468-481.
Abstract: Scale data are drawn on to examine the moral values of 168 introductory sociology students at Ohio State U in 1988, comparing their responses to those of students queried using the same instrument in 1958 & 1969. Factor analysis reveals that 4 moral value factors - misrepresentation, religion, selfishness, & crime - accounted for nearly 40% of the total variance over time. Females rated the misrepresentation, religion, & selfishness factors more severely than did males in both 1958 & 1988. In general, moral severity was found to increase between 1929 & 1958, & to decrease in the same magnitude between 1959 & 1988. However, while significant changes were found in the misrepresentation & selfishness factors, religious severity did not change, indicating an increasing mercenary orientation for youth of the 1980s. [Source: SA]

Brinkerhoff, Merlin B., Elaine Grandin, Irving Hexham, and Carson Pue. 1991. "The Perception of Mormons by Rural Canadian Youth." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 30, pp. 479-486.
Abstract: Explored perceptions about Mormons as an identifiable minority and the relationship between tolerance for Mormons and selected religious and nonreligious factors with data from 273 students in Grades 8-22 from rural Alberta, Canada. The number of Mormon acquaintances had the greatest effect on tolerance for Mormons, followed by belief in interreligious marriage and belief in the paranormal. A multivariate model suggested that a connecting theme, described as a cosmopolitan world view, connected factors that impacted independently on religious tolerance for Mormons. [Source: PI]

Cannon, Elaine. 1991. Not Just Ordinary Young Men & Young Women. Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft.

Dean, Kenda Creasy and Paul R. Yost. 1991. "A Synthesis of the Research on, and a Descriptive Overview of Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish Religious Youth Programs in the United States." Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, Washington, D.C.

Duckett, P. Joan. 1991. "Relationship of Mental Well-Being and Religious Commitment in Adolescence." M.SC. Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada).
Abstract: A sample of 172 adolescents (102 females, 70 males) was drawn from urban Roman Catholic high schools. Results of three statistical analyses failed to find an association between religious commitment, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS), and mental well-being, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A significant correlation was found, however, between the Ego Strength Scale (ES) and the GHQ, r = $-$.55, p $<$.001, although the magnitude of the relationship was not large enough to recommend substitution of one test for the other in diagnostic work with adolescents. No gender differences in reported religiosity were found in the present study. But highly significant correlations were found between adolescent religious practices and the perceived practices of their parents, particularly for church attendance, r =.80, p $<$.001. Internal locus of control was found to be significantly related to intrinsic religiosity only when attributing failure to lack of effort. [Source: DA]

Furnham, Adrian and Barrie Stacey. 1991. Young People's Understanding of Society. New York, NY: Routledge.
Abstract: Adopting a social cognitive perspective, data from previous empirical studies are employed to explore how young people (YP) develop an understanding of the social worlds of, eg, politics, economics, work, gender, & religion, in this vol published as part of the Adolescence & Society series (John C. Coleman, series editor), & presented in 10 Chpts with a Preface. (1) Introduction to the Issues - explains that YP's social views are often fragmented because social knowledge is based on arbitrary social, economic, & cultural definitions learned by observing the behavior of adults & peers. (2) Politics and Government - discusses the stages of development as YP acquire knowledge of political systems, exploring gender, cultural, & generational differences, as well as methods to teach politics & government that encourage reponsible citizenship. (3) Economics and Trade - reviews the acquisition of economic socialization & consumer behavior patterns among YP, noting age, gender, & class differences, & examining development differences in capitalist vs socialist societies. (4) Work and Employment - considers factors influencing YP's understanding of the nature of employment, exploring especially the impact of part-time jobs, & discusses ways to prepare YP so that they have appropriate expectations about work. (5) Sex and Gender - investigates how YP construe sex, gender, sex roles, & marriage & family life, explaning how this socialization process occurs in the family, schools, & society. (6) Religion and Spiritual Matters - discusses how very young children often become aware of religious activities without understanding their meaning, & gradually develop conceptions of God, & explores the role of religion in YP's identity-formation process. (7) Race, Colour and Prejudice - explains that YP develop race & color awareness very early, & related attitudes & behaviors are influenced by cultural agents, eg, parents, siblings, teachers, peers, the media, & churches. (8) Law and Justice - examines the legal socialization process of YP, highlighting the development of legal ideas, concepts, attitudes, reasoning, behavior, & a sense of legal obligation. (9) Social Class and Stratification - contends that legitimation of the notion of social class is part of YP's socialization, which allows the maintenance of inequalities (eg, in income or power) in the wider social structure. (10) Conclusion - argues that YP would benefit from school curriculum that places greater emphasis on how societies operate, & summarizes the main points of the book. [Source: SA]

Gow, Murray D. and Kathlyn Ronaldson, (eds.). 1991. "Youth at the Crossroads." CBRF Journal vol. 126, pp. 5-23.
Abstract: Children and worship in a Brethren assembly, by H Martin. The Brethren and the young, by J Allan. Faith development in childhood through discovery learning, by R Fountain. [Source: RI]

Group, Barna Research. 1991. Today's Teens: A Generation in Transition. Glendale, CA: The Group.

Heischman, Daniel R. 1991. "Adolescents' Moral Compass, Adults' Moral Presence." Christian Century vol. 108, pp. 109-111.

Hutsebaut, Dirk and Dominic Verhoeven. 1991. "The Adolescents' Representation of God from Age 12 to 18: Changes or Evolution?" Journal of Empirical Theology pp. 59-72.

London, Perry and Allissa Hirschfeld. 1991. "The Psychology of Identity Formation." Pp. 31-50 in Jewish Identity in America, edited by D. Gordis and Y. Ben-Horin. Los Angeles, Calif: Susan and David Wilstein Institute of Jewish Policy Studies.

McNamara, Patrick H. 1991. "Catholic Youth in the Modern Church." Pp. 57-66 in Vatican II and Us Catholicism, edited by H. Ebaugh. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

Nipkow, Karl E. and Friedrich Schweitzer. 1991. "Adolescents' Justifications for Faith or Doubt in God: A Study of Fulfilled and Unfulfilled Expectations." New Directions for Child Development pp. 91-100.
Abstract: Presents data concerning reflections and feelings about God obtained from 16-22 yr old students. Most Ss had expectations of God and the Church that had not been fulfilled, including God as helper, God as the key for explaining the world, God as more than symbol, and the Church as God's witness. Results are examined through the lenses of psychoanalytic and cognitive-developmental theories. The issue of how adolescents talk about God and the Church is discussed. [Source: PI]

Roghaar, H. Bruce. 1991. "The Influence of Primary Social Institutions and Adolescent Religiosity on Young Adult Male Religious Observance." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: A model was constructed to test the influence of family religious observance and church/institutional integration on adolescent private and public religious observance, future religious intentions, and religious education on subsequent on young adult male religious observance. The study was longitudinal, utilizing a sample of 934 LDS adolescents first selected and studied in 1981. Family religious observance was found to be a reliable predictor of adolescent religiosity, and, indirectly and directly, of young adult religious observance. The private dimension of adolescent religious behavior was also found to be a strong predictor of young adult religious behavior, particularly the private dimension. For LDS young men, full time mission service was found to be an especially strong predictor of subsequent religious observance. [Source: DA]

Scarlett, W. George and Lucy Perriello. 1991. "The Development of Prayer in Adolescence." New Directions for Child Development vol. 52, pp. 63-76.
Abstract: Examined developments during adolescence in prayer's function and meaning, as evidenced by the way adolescents pray and by the way they speak about prayer. 89 7th and 9th graders and undergraduates wrote prayers for hypothetical situations concerning adolescence and responded to questions about prayer. For solicited prayers, there was a shift during adolescence away from using prayer to request changes in objective reality and toward using prayer to change or cope with feeling and increase intimacy with God. Results show the usefulness of a developmental perspective on prayer as a way to understand the phenomenon. [Source: PI]

Sciacca, Fran. 1991. Generation at Risk: What Legacy Are the Baby-Boomers Leaving Their Kids? Chicago: Moody Press.

Steinmetz, Daniel. 1991. "An Agenda for the Study of Jewish Identity and Denominationalism among Children." Pp. 181-185 in Jewish Identity in America, edited by D. Gordis and Y. Ben-Horin. Los Angeles, Calif.: Susan and David Wilstein Institute of Jewish Policy Studies.

Thorson, James A. 1991. "Afterlife Constructs, Death Anxiety, and Life Reviewing: The Importance of Religion as a Moderating Variable." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 19, pp. 278-284.
Abstract: 65 high school students, 77 university students, and 247 adult continuing education students completed a death anxiety scale and questions dealing with frequency of church attendance, religiosity, and afterlife concerns. 72 of the Ss were male. Variance in both death anxiety and religiosity was greater between age groups than across gender. Afterlife items tended to have higher correlations with death anxiety than did either self-rated religiosity or frequency of church-going. Elements of religiosity seem to have important interrelationships with the developmental process of life review in old age. [Source: PI]

Day, Wayne Allan. 1990. "Religious Generation Gap: A Relational Study of Selected Religious Attitudes of Union University Freshmen and Their Parents." Ed.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Problem. This study addressed the issue of the differences in religious attitudes which existed between entering freshmen at a Tennessee Baptist college and their parents. This study compared and contrasted selected religious attitudes of students, mothers and fathers to see if a religious generation gap existed at a Tennessee Baptist college. Procedures. Three separate populations were utilized for this study. Union University freshmen (20 years of age or younger) during the Fall semester of 1989 and the mothers of these entering freshmen and the fathers of these students. These groups responded to Likert scale questionnaires concerning religious attitudes. This instrument was developed using the 1963 Baptist Faith and Message statement by the author and was validated and tested for reliability by a pilot study. The responses were statistically treated using t-Test for correlated samples and Pearson's r for matched pairs. Findings and conclusions. The study found both emancipation and social learning theory at work, though neither was adequate to fully explain the interaction of family attitudes. Parents and adolescents were different in their attitudes about Southern Baptist doctrine. There were also 7 similarities in attitudes that were found in the 18 attitudes measured between the groups. The current study found that there were significant differences between parents' and adolescents' religious attitudes. This meant that mothers and fathers were significantly different from their adolescent and that emancipation theory was at work. Significant negative relationships were found in adolescent and parent attitudes regarding liberty, God, and the social order. Significant positive relationships were found in adolescent and parent attitudes about Scripture, leisure, and the church. This meant that when parents were paired with their adolescent that there were some significant similarities and that social learning theory was at work. [Source: DA]

Erickson, Joseph Arthur. 1990. "Adolescent Religious Development and Commitment: A Structural Equation Model of the Role of Family, Peer Group, and Educational Influences." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: This investigation explores the social psychological study of adolescent religion and why it has lagged behind other areas of social psychology. It also looks at the significant advances made during the past 20 years, especially in the areas of scale and index construction and structural equation model testing. Later, I propose and test a conceptual model of adolescent religious belief and commitment which is informed by these recent advances. This model looks at the linear structural relations from the covariance matrix of relations in a large survey of adolescent religious attitudes and behavior conducted in late 1988 and early 1989. This proposed model is specified, modified and re-specified. The final fit of the proposed conceptual model to the data is quite good, especially when one takes into account the survey used for this study was originally written for another purpose. Finally, the implications of this new model and additional research strategies and questions are suggested. [Source: DA]

Fulton, Aubyn S. 1990. "Religious Orientation, Anti-Homosexual Sentiment, Identity Status, and Fundamentalism: In Search of Mature Religion." Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology, Pasadena.
Abstract: The intrinsic ($I$), extrinsic ($E$), and quest ($O$) religious orientation scales have been empirically productive, but theoretically inconsistent. Both $I$ and $O$ have been found to correlate positively, negatively, and not at all with various measures of tolerance (see Fulton, 1990). $E$ has recently been shown to be comprised of two distinct sub-scales, social ($Es$) and personal ($Ep$). In this study the theoretical and empirical deficits of $I$, $E$, and $O$ were reviewed in light of Allport's concept of mature religion. It was suggested that the theoretical consistency of research in this area would be improved by considering not just the degree of religious commitment, but its developmental quality as well. One hundred and seventy-four conservative Christian undergraduate students were assessed for religious orientation, and these were correlated with three approaches to the evaluation of religious maturity: anti-homosexual sentiment, fundamentalism, and identity status as measured by Adams' Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS). Significant correlations were found between $I$ and both fundamentalism and negative morally-based attitudes towards homosexuals. Also, there were just as many foreclosed (developmentally immature) high $I$'s as there were foreclosed low $I$s. However, $I$ was negatively correlated with social distance from homosexuals; when fundamentalism was controlled for the association between $I$ and negative attitudes toward homosexuals disappeared. $Es$ was found to correlate with measures of prejudice toward homosexuals, but was uncorrelated with fundamentalism. The correlations of $Ep$ were exactly opposite. $O$ was found to correlate with most measures of tolerance, and also correlated with moratorium ("identity crisis" status). Results were interpreted as support for the positions that: $I$ confuses both mature and immature religious commitment; $E$ is comprised of two distinct types of immature commitment, $Es$ and $Ep$; and $O$ is best understood as a developmentally intermediate orientation similar to an adolescent identity crisis. The assessment of the developmental quality of religious commitment is discussed as an important step in the proper understanding of $I$, $E$ and $O$. [Source: DA]

Gallup, George. 1990. Religion in America 1990. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Religion Research Center.

Gamoran, Adam. 1990. "Civil Religion in American Schools." Sociological Analysis vol. 51, pp. 235-256.
Abstract: The central role played by US public schools in producing & transmitting civil religion is examined drawing on data from classroom observations, retrospective essays by 17 undergraduates, & personal experiences as a student in suburban Chicago, Ill. Results indicate that civil religion in schools appears in daily rituals, eg, the pledge of allegiance, holiday observances, activities such as music & art, & the social studies curriculum. The beliefs, symbols, & rituals of US civil religion are specified, & it is argued that the practice of civil religion in public schools plays a dual role: while it socializes youth to a common set of views, it also sets off subgroups whose backgrounds or beliefs prevent them from participating fully in civil religion. [Source: SA]

Garland, Kenneth Ray. 1990. "Factors Which Motivate High School Students to Participate in Sunday School and Weekly Youth Group Meetings of the Churches of the Conservative Baptist Association of Southern California." Ed.D. Thesis, Biola University Talbot School of Theology.
Abstract: This descriptive study examined the motivation to participate in Sunday school and weekly youth group meetings among high school students of the Conservative Baptist Association of Southern California. This motivation was examined in relationship to the spiritual well-being and religious orientation of the students. Motivation to participate was measured using an adaption of the Education Participation Scale. Spiritual well- being was measured using the SWB Inventory. Religious orientation was measured using the Religious Orientation Inventory. Seven factors emerged from the EPS regarding Sunday School participation and seven factors emerged regarding weekly youth group participation. The Sunday School factors were Spiritual Growth, Honor to God, Service to Others, Identity Formation, Social Contact, Escape, and External Expectations. The youth group factors were Spiritual Growth, Identity Formation, Cognitive Interest, Social Stimulation, Integration with Life, Escape, and External Expectations. Spiritual Growth had the highest mean score in both program activities. The Escape and External Expectations Factors emerged in a factoral analysis, however the mean scores for these two factors on both program activities studied were quite low, greatly reducing the impact of these factors as significant motivators to participation. Findings indicated that the only demographic variable which had significant relationship with many of the factors at the.05 alpha level was the number of years a student had been a Christian. Students were seen in four profiles according to their orientations on the ROI. Students identified themselves as Intrinsically Oriented, Extrinsically Oriented, Indiscriminately Pro-religious, or Indiscriminately Anti- religious. There were only small significant differences between the four profiles with regard to motivation to participate. However, there were larger significant differences between the four profiles with regard to spiritual, existential, and religious well-being. [Source: DA]

Gibson, Harry M., Leslie J. Francis, and Paul R. Pearson. 1990. "The Relationship between Social Class and Attitude Towards Christianity among Fourteen- and Fifteen-Year-Old Adolescents." Personality and Individual Differences vol. 11, pp. 631-635.
Abstract: Explored the relationship between social class and attitude toward Christianity (ATC) among 2,717 14- and 15-yr-olds who completed a scale of attitude toward Christianity, as well as a Likert scale pertaining to God and religion. Ss also provided information about church attendance and father's occupation. Although parents and adolescents from higher social class backgrounds attended church more frequently and church attendance was associated with positive ATC, after controlling for differences in parental church attendance, adolescents from lower social class backgrounds recorded a more positive ATC. Results are discussed against the background of H. J. Eysenck's (1967) 2-dimensional model of social attitudes. [Source: PI]

Hernandez, Edwin I. and Roger L. Dudley. 1990. "Persistence of Religion through Primary Group Ties among Hispanic Seventh-Day Adventist Young People." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: In a search for factors related to religious commitment, 443 Hispanic youth from 22 Seventh-Day Adventist churches distributed throughout the US were surveyed. It was hypothesized that the strength of primary group ties are related to religious commitment, providing evidence for a collective-expressive view of the church, & that the process of acculturation weakens these ties leading to a lessening of religious commitment. Three components of commitment were defined, & four blocks of predictor variables were introduced. Multiple regression reveals that acculturation variables predicted saliency of religion, ritual commitment, & devotional commitment; the family dynamics block predicted saliency & ritual commitment; & pastoral relations predicted only saliency. Demographic variables were not significantly predictive, except for family income, which was negatively related to saliency. [Source: SA]

Hull, John M. (ed.). 1990. "Science, Technology and Religious Education." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 13, pp. 1-73.
Abstract: Attitude towards Christianity, creationism, scientism and interest in science among 11-15 year olds, by L J Francis, H J Gibson and P Fulljames. Science-and-religion: a challenge for secondary education, by M Poole. Science and religion: how to start an argument, by R Stannard. Science and religious education--conflict or co-operation? by T Cooling. True stories: science and religion in education, by P Yates. The influence of beliefs and values on technological activities--a challenge to religious education, by R Conway. Biotechnology and religious education, by A Riggs. Beliefs of German and Swiss children and young people about science and religion, by H Reich. [Source: RI]

Hyde, Kenneth Edwin. 1990. Religion in Childhood and Adolescence: A Comprehensive Review of the Research. Birmingham, AL: Religious socialization Press, Inc.
Abstract: (from the cover) "Religion in Childhood and Adolescence: A Comprehensive Review of the Research" is, as its title denotes, a careful and thorough examination of virtually every significant empirical research study on this topic done in the United States and throughout much of the English-speaking world. Major topics covered in this exhaustive book include religious beliefs, religious attitudes, religious values, religious experience, overt religious behavior and lifestyle, religious schooling, and much more. [Source: PI]

Jackson, Ellen Pastorino. 1990. "The Influence of Gender, Family Cohesion and Family Adaptability on the Domains of Adolescent Identity." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, family cohesion and family adaptability on identity exploration and identity commitment in six domains: occupation, religion, politics, friendships, dating, and sex roles. Specific objectives included the assessment of (1) the interaction between family functioning and gender, and their effect on identity exploration and identity commitment, (2) the domains by which males and females define themselves, and (3) the typical sequence in which the identity domains are resolved by late adolescents. Subjects were 210 male and female college students. The FACES III Inventory provided measures of perceived cohesion and adaptability of families. The Ego-Identity Interview provided measures of identity exploration and commitment for the six domains. The findings of this study indicated a complex association between family functioning, gender, and identity. Females perceived more cohesion in the family environment than males, and higher levels of family cohesion were associated with higher levels of identity commitment. An interaction between adaptability and gender on identity exploration also was found. High-exploring males perceived high levels of adaptability in the family whereas high-exploration in females was related to low and high levels of family adaptability. Gender differences by domain also were observed. Males were more likely to have explored in politics and females were more likely to have explored sex role values. Males were more committed in the political domain whereas females were more committed in the domains of religion and dating. The results also indicated little evidence of exploration by the subjects in pursuit of religious or political identity. [Source: DA]

Kirkpatrick, Lee A. and Phillip R. Shaver. 1990. "Attachment Theory and Religion: Childhood Attachments, Religious Beliefs, and Conversion." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 29, pp. 315-334.

Kotarba, Joseph A. 1990. "Adolescent Use of Heavy Metal Rock Music as a Resource for Meaning." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Rock music critics & academic observers have traditionally viewed the heavy metal genre with disdain, arguing that, in contrast to more artistic styles of rock, heavy metal is commercial, its lyrics are banal, & its performers are sexist. Further, heavy metal fans are routinely portrayed stereotypically as inarticulate, working class, & ethnic. Here, it is argued that, sociologically, heavy metal music functions like any other cultural form by providing philosophical, aesthetic, & practical meanings for its audiences' use in everyday life. Heavy metal is noteworthy because it serves as a primary source of meaning for much of its audience, ie, those adolescents who do not receive viable meanings from school, church, family, or other cultural institutions. Topics addressed & interpreted by heavy metal include, among many others: school, parents, authority, drugs, self-concept, relations with friends, gender, life, death, & good & evil. Problems inherent in analyzing popular music through the framework of cultural criticism are discussed: since this approach is grounded in criteria of taste, it unwisely directs the social scientist's attention away from the study of audiences' perception & use of culture. [Source: SA]

Miller, Alan S. 1990. "Conservatism or Faddism: Trends in Political Conservatism among the Young." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: The relationship between shifts in the social desirability of a label & the willingness of young people to apply this label to themselves is examined, using data from the 1972 & 1987 General Social Surveys to construct & test a LISREL model. Results show that, holding religiosity & socially conservative attitudes constant, time produced a change in how young people perceive themselves on a liberal-conservative continuum. No correlation is found between year & the other exogenous dimensions of religiosity & attitudes, indicating no concomitant change over time in either religiosity or attitudes. In addition, the % of young people willing to apply a conservative label to themselves increased without a concomitant change in typically conservative attitudes or religiosity, suggesting that the perceived increases in conservatism & religiosity reflect a change in the social desirability of these labels rather than a substantive shift in either attitudes or religiosity. Results also highlight the limitations of labeling & attribution theory, which tend to ignore the incentive side of self-labeling. [Source: SA]

Persinger, M. A. and K. Makarec. 1990. "Exotic Beliefs May Be Substitutes for Religious Beliefs." Perceptual and Motor Skills vol. 71, pp. 16-18.
Abstract: Examined whether people who attended church regularly would endorse more traditional and fewer exotic beliefs, while those who did not attend church regularly would demonstrate the opposite effect. Personal philosophy inventories of 847 university students (aged 16-58 yrs), collected over 10 yrs, were analyzed. Results suggest that exotic beliefs may serve as substitutes for more traditional religious concepts. The absence of an absolute decrease in belief scores suggests that the influence of a university education did not change this core of beliefs. Early-onset religious experiences appear to promote or to enhance exotic and religious beliefs. [Source: PI]

Riley, Patrick J. 1990. "Welcome, Nurture, Challenge: A Program of Collaboration in Youth Ministry Involving a Catholic High School and Four Catholic Parishes." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed to help integrate students of a Catholic high school into the life of their parishes. The project did so through the high school's active support of parish youth retreats, through encouragement of student involvement in the ministries of the parish and through providing school time and space for interaction of the parish staffs and their youth on a quarterly basis. A pre- and post-project self-report questionnaire was administered to the student participants as a means of determining the success of the project. Questionnaire results indicated that the project was successful in helping the students to become more involved in the life of their parishes. [Source: RI]

Sciacca, Fran. 1990. Generation at Risk. Minneapolis, Minn.: World Wide Publications.

Tews, Thomas H. 1990. "An Investigation of the God Images of Twelve Students Who Are Members of Immanuel Lutheran Church, Crystal Lake, Illinios." Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston.
Abstract: The project explored the God images of twelve students, all of whom were members of Immanuel Lutheran Church (Crystal Lake, Ill). Six students attended the Christian Day School operated by the church, and six students attended public school and Sunday school at Immanuel Lutheran Church. There were three groups, with an equal number of boys and girls, in each group representing first, fourth, fifth, and seventh grades. To investigate their God images, the students were interviewed, using the interview utilized by David Heller. The results of the project reported that Immanuel students related more knowledge of God and faith statements or left brain image(s), showing the naming function of the left brain, than public school students, while public school students related more life-related experiences or right and whole brain image(s) than Immanuel students. [Source: RI]

Benson, Peter L., Michael J. Donahue, and Joseph A. Erickson. 1989. "Adolescence and Religion: A Review of the Literature from 1970 to 1986." Pp. 153-181 in Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion: A Research Annual, Vol. 1, edited by Monty L. Lynn and David O. Moberg. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) examines recent research on the religiousness of individuals aged 10 to 18 limited to the literature published in the United States, with a few selected excursions into publications from other English-speaking countries this review is divided into four sections: a national profile of adolescent religiousness, cognitive processes in adolescent religious development, psychosocial factors in religious development, and the relationship of adolescent religiousness to social-personality variables [Source: PI]

Carr, Mary Trout. 1989. "Adolescents and Factors Influencing Participation in Organized Religion: An Exploratory Study of Black Youth, Their Families and Pastors in an Urban Environment." Ph.D. Thesis, The Union For Experimenting Colleges and Universities.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the Pentecostal church serving the Black Community (although youth and ministers from other denominations were interviewed). This work summarizes some of the difficulties of the Black church in reaching the youth, specifically in the Pentecostal church. Emphasis is placed on the disassociation of youth from the church, based on an examination of this institution and its relationship to young adults. Also, this study is about how these two entities (the youth and the church) can bridge the chasm that exists between them. Qualitative-quantitative and descriptive methodologies were employed in hopes of finding the missing factors that can bring the church and youth together. Finally, this study suggests that the church needs to do more to keep the attention of the youths by employing more resources outside of the church to reach them. The basic hypothesis purports that Black youth are leaving the church of their family origin at a high rate, and many of the churches in the Black communities fail to meet the needs of these youth. Sixteen pastors were interviewed from various mainline denominations as well as pastors from the Pentecostal church. An open-ended questionnaire was developed to do the field work. After interviewing twenty-nine churched and unchurched youth, male and female, ages thirteen to eighteen, it was revealed that most youth were disenchanted with the church. In addition, many youth in this study had low regard for some of the pastors because of their questionable behavior. The unchurched youth viewed these pastors as hypocritical and not living up the their "Call" as ministers. This work, however, is not to be understood as the ultimate answer to the problem of adolescents and the church, but this study will recommend some appropriate responses to these concerns. [Source: DA]

Daly, Doris L. 1989. "The Relationship between High School Class, Grades, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Concerns." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This research was conducted to increase knowledge of a population of adolescents by means of an assessment of their concerns. Research has demonstrated that environmental conditions impact on adolescent concerns, and therefore, a local survey provides knowledge relevant to each population. In addition to a survey of concerns, demographic variables--grade level, grade point average and participation in extracurricular activities were included to determine the mediating role of each variable on adolescent concerns. To add knowledge to the contemporary complex problems of adolescent suicide, alcoholism, and drug abuse, an analysis of specific items relating to these problems were included in this study. Comparative studies to determine if concerns are mediated by community differences and by time (zeitgeist) were also conducted. To assess concerns, the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) (Mooney & Gordon, 1950) was used. This instrument contains 330 items of concerns grouped into 11 distinct categories. A new category, "Drugs and Alcohol," was added by the researcher and contained 30 items relating to drug and alcohol concerns. The sample consisted of 356 students (grades 9-12) who attended a private male college-preparatory high school. These students responded to the MPCL, the new category, and a questionnaire including the demographic information. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed the top three ranking categories of concerns in this population were: "Adjustment to School Work," "Social/Psychological Relations," and "Morals and Religion." Multivariate discriminant analyses revealed groups differentiated by each demographic variable--grade level, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities were significantly different, with the exception of 11th and 12th grade groups. The tenth grade, low grade point average, and "no" activity groups had higher levels of total concerns with academic concerns the major category. In addition, t tests revealed respondents to each of the suicide, alcohol, and drug items of concern showed significantly higher levels of concerns in the majority of categories in comparison to nonrespondents. Finally, comparisons with earlier research demonstrated that students in this current study (1987) responded to a higher level of total concerns. [Source: DA]

Dudley, Roger L. and C. Robert Laurent. 1989. "Alienation from Religion in Church-Related Adolescents." Sociological Analysis vol. 49, pp. 408-420.
Abstract: To explore alienation from religion among church-related adolescents, 390 high school students attending 3 youth conferences sponsored by Protestant judicatories were asked to complete the Youth Perceptual Inventory, which included a scale to measure religious alienation & 17 other scales to measure various independent variables. This sample did not appear to be highly alienated, but there was a wide range in alienation scores. Multiple regression suggests that religious alienation is highly related to the quality of teens' relationships with pastors & parents as well as to opportunities for church involvement, their own self-concepts, & the influence of peer groups & the media. All but one of the research hypotheses were supported by the findings, but pastoral & church influences ranked considerably higher than parent & home influences. [Source: SA]

Enright, Robert D., Maria J. Santos, and Radhi Al Mabuk. 1989. "The Adolescent as Forgiver." Journal of Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 95-110.
Abstract: Tested a social cognitive development model of forgiveness in 2 studies among 119 predominantly Catholic 4th, 7th, and 10th graders; college students; and adults. Ss were given a forgiveness interview that assessed 6 stages of forgiveness development, the Defining Issues Test, and a religiosity scale. There were strong age trends for forgiveness and justice; forgiveness and justice were related, but distinct, constructs. The more Ss practiced their faith, the higher they were in the forgiveness stage. Findings support evidence that people's understanding of forgiveness develops with age. [Source: PI]

Francis, Leslie J. 1989. "Measuring Attitude Towards Christianity During Childhood and Adolescence." Personality and Individual Differences vol. 10, pp. 695-698.
Abstract: A 24-item Likert-type scale of attitudes toward Christianity (Form ASC4B) was completed by 3,600 pupils (1st yr of junior school to 5th yr of secondary school) attending non-church related state maintained schools in England. Results support the consistent unidimensionality, reliability, and validity of the scale. The performance of the scale among 1st- and 2nd-yr junior school Ss was less satisfactory than among the older age groups. Norms are presented for boys and girls from each year group separately, demonstrating a persistent decline in attitudes toward Christianity for both sexes between the ages of 8 and 16 yrs. [Source: PI]

French, Hal W. 1989. "The Psycho-Dynamics of Adversary Identity." Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses pp. 261-272.

Garfinkle, Martin I. 1989. "The Relationship between Reported Alcohol Abuse and Self-Perceived Jewishness among Adolescents." D.S.W. Thesis, Adelphi University School of Social Work.
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between alcohol abuse among Jewish adolescents and three related factors that comprise the trait we define as "Jewishness": (1) Jewish ethnic identity, (2) religious affiliation (synagogue attendance), and (3) religiosity. Instruments were developed to measure the strength of Jewish ethnic identity and religiosity, the frequency of synagogue attendance (affiliation), and the extent of alcohol abusing behavior. The results indicated that Jewish adolescents who are ethnically identified tend to abuse alcohol less frequently than Jews who do not have a strong sense of ethnic identity. The same inverse relationship was true for religiosity. However, the combined effects of ethnic identity and religiosity were not additive, thus indicating no interactive influence in the prediction of alcohol abusing behavior. Other findings from the study indicated that friends' use of alcohol was a strong predictor of alcohol abusing behavior in the Jewish adolescent. It appears that past discrepancies in findings with regard to the Jew and alcohol abuse relate to the dependent measure in those studies. The implications of the findings suggest that social workers should encourage the enhancement of ethnic identity in their clients when possible and where appropriate since this may retard alcohol abuse. Another implication for social workers, educators, and other professionals is the promotion of programs that discuss the vulnerability of adolescents to peer influences. [Source: DA]

Gill, Newell T. and Linda H. Thornton. 1989. "Religious Orientation and Self-Esteem among High School Students." High School Journal vol. 73, pp. 47-60.
Abstract: Conducted a study to determine the popular religious mindset of 2 groups of high school seniors, 92 from 2 public schools and 87 from Catholic high school, and to identify what relationship existed between their religious orientation and their perceived self-esteem. Instruments included the "What I Believe" (WIB) scale (N. T. Gill and L. H. Thornton, 1988), the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI [S. Coopersmith, 1967]), and a personal data questionnaire. Crisis dependency and school type were found to be related to religious zeal. The parochial school Ss performed better on the WIB's Judeo-Christian scale and indicated greater religious zeal than the public school Ss. No relationship was found between the SEI and religious beliefs. [Source: PI]

Haas, Marilyn Goldman. 1989. "Concerns and Characteristics of Tucson Jewish Youth, Grades 4-12." M.A. Thesis, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: This study assesses the concerns of Jewish youth in Tucson, Arizona and reports their demographic characteristics and those of their families. Other issues explored are Jewish identity, family and peer relations, use of community resources, and program interests. The 382 Jewish youth surveyed in grades 4-12 were essentially an affiliated population with over 96% belonging to a Jewish religious institution, education program, or youth organization. The relationship was examined between Jewish youth concerns and family changes of single-parent and stepfamily living, dual careers, and interfaith marriage. Differences in concerns were also identified by gender, educational level, and affiliation. Results are also presented of a survey of 59 Jewish community resources concerning their utilization by parents and youth and their perception of youth concerns. Based on findings, recommendations are made to encourage Jewish community awareness and responsiveness to concerns and needs of Jewish youth and their families. [Source: DA]

Hillman, Evelyn D. 1989. "The Relationship of Church Attendance to Adolescent Self-Concept and Career Choice." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The relationship of church attendance to adolescent self-concept and career choice is a research study which engaged forty-four (44) grade 11 and grade 12 students in career decision-making activities in order to study the impact of church attendance, which provides for moral training, on the variables: self-concept, career decision-making skill, career maturity and the formation of post-high school plans. The sample, from a large, metropolitan high school, completed the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Fitts (1965); the Career Maturity Inventory, Crites (1978) and a questionnaire which revealed post-high school plans. Data from these instruments were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi-square statistics. Results revealed that church attenders had a higher self-concept and better career decision-making skills than non-church attenders. The career maturity (ability to successfully enter into the world of work) was not statistically different for the two groups, but church attenders displayed superior performance on all indices. There was no real difference between the groups in their formation of post-high school plans. These research findings suggest that the addition of moral training to adolescent preparation for adulthood increases the likelihood of positive development. Indications are that moral development might be considered as an important additional variable in the study of adolescent development. [Source: DA]

Janssen, Jacques, Joep de Hart, and Christine den Draak. 1989. "Praying Practices." Journal of Empirical Theology pp. 28-39.

Jaret, Beth Gerstel. 1989. "Factors Related to Religiosity in Jewish Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Hofstra University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative influence of variables related to the religiosity of Jewish adolescents. The sample in this study consisted of 208 Jewish teenagers (grades nine through twelve); 107 male, 101 female; 41 were reform Jewish teenagers, 71 conservative, 50 orthodox, and 46 unaffiliated. Subjects completed a revision of the Religiosity Scale (Rohrbaugh & Jessor, 1975) four times, reflecting their perceptions of: (a) their mother's religiosity, (b) their father's religiosity, (c) the average religiosity of their peer group, and (d) their own religiosity. They also completed Schuldermann and Schludermann's 1988 revisions of the Children's Reports of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI-30) to determine their perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' behavior and a demographic data and religious referent questionnaire. The results of this study indicated a positive relationship between subject and perceived parental religiosity (r = .723, p < .001) as well as between subject and peer religiosity (r = .670, p < .001). No difference was found between the relationships of mothers' and fathers' religiosity to that of the subject (t [51] = -.466, p > .05). The correlation between perceived parental religiosity and subject religiosity was found to be greater among male than among female subjects (z = 3.59, p < .01). Perceived parental behavior was not found to contribute significantly to the explained variance within adolescent religiosity, once perceived parental religiosity was considered (p > .05). In choosing referents for religious beliefs (chi sq [4, n = 181] = 27.8, p < .001) and behavior (chi sq (4, n = 179) = 29.8, p <.001), subjects report choosing parents more frequently than they report choosing peers. [Source: DA]

Jones, Stephen D. 1989. Faith Shaping: Youth and the Experience of Faith. Valley Forge PA: Judson Pr.

Mangino, Nancy A. 1989. "Adolescents' Death Anxiety: Relationships with Parental Death Anxiety, Religious Orientation, and Death Experience." Thesis, George Washington University.

McAuley, E. Nancy and Moira Mathieson. 1989. Faith without Form: Beliefs of Catholic Youth. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward.

Ozorak, Elizabeth W. 1989. "Social and Cognitive Influences on the Development of Religious Beliefs and Commitment in Adolescence." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 28, pp. 448-463.
Abstract: Examined a social-cognitive model of change of adolescent religious beliefs, based on the concepts of anchoring and polarization. 390 9th, 11th, and 12th graders and 134 alumni filled out a questionnaire assessing family demographics, religious background, beliefs, practices, and experience, existential questioning, and closeness to family and peers. Parents' religious affiliation and practices were positively related to all aspects of religiousness among early and middle adolescents but only to practices and to decreased likelihood of change in the college-age group. There was evidence of peer influence on religious doubt and changes of faith. Existential concerns and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores were positively related to change in older Ss. [Source: PI]

Reich, Karl Helmut. 1989. "Between Religion and Science: Complementarity in the Religious Thinking of Young People." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 11, pp. 62-69.

Selengut, Charles. 1989. "The Search for the Sacred: Jewish Youth and Contemporary Religious Movements." Dialogue and Alliance vol. 3, pp. 29-38.

Serow, Robert C. 1989. "Community Service, Religious Commitment, and Campus Climate." Youth and Society vol. 21, pp. 105-119.
Abstract: Current debates over a national service policy have focused attention on voluntary action by US youth. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from 2,100 college students in a southeastern state reveals that participation in community service is related to individual religious commitment & to the moral climate of the campus. The finding that campus climate is most important among students with relatively weak religious commitments suggests that institutions can take steps to encourage pro bono efforts by young people. [Source: SA]

Willits, Fern K. and Donald M. Crider. 1989. "Church Attendance and Traditional Religious Beliefs in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Panel Study." Review of Religious Research vol. 31, pp. 68-81.
Abstract: Utilizing data on a sample of 331 married persons, who had responded to a questionnaire survey in 1970, as high school students, & in 1981, it was found that, as adolescents, the Ss reported highly traditional religious beliefs & frequent church attendance. Although they saw themselves as attending worship services somewhat more frequently than their parents, youthful attendance & beliefs were significantly correlated with perceived parental attendance. Ten years later, Ss' church attendance had declined, & earlier parental patterns had no direct effect on attendance or belief. Frequency of spouse's church attendance was importantly linked with the S's own attendance & religious beliefs in young adulthood. [Source: SA]

Zern, David S. 1989. "Some Connections between Increasing Religiousness and Academic Accomplishment in a College Population." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 141-154.
Abstract: A sample of 251 college students were asked via a 6-item questionnaire to describe their own degree of religiousness & that of the home atmosphere in which they grew up. Ss gave self-report measures of their total religiousness, belief in God, & ritual observance. When these measures were related separately to their cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), no relationship was found for either present or past degree of religiousness. However, on each of the three measures of religiousness, about 75% of the approximately 10% of the sample who reported being more religious currently than in the atmosphere in which they grew up had GPAs above the sample mean, while fewer than 50% of the rest of the sample did. [Source: SA]

Francis, Leslie J. and Paul R. Pearson. 1988. "Religiosity and the Short-Scale Epq--R Indices of E, N and L, Compared with the Jepi, Jepq and Epq." Personality and Individual Differences vol. 9, pp. 653-657.
Abstract: The short-scale Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised (EPQ--R) proposes 12 item indices of Extraversion (E), Neuroticism (N), and Lie (L) scale scores. The reliability and validity of these short indices and their relationship with religiosity were explored among 181 15- and 16-yr-olds and in comparison with scores on the EPQ, the Junior EPQ (JEPQ), and the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI). Results show that there were no significant relationships between N or E scores and religiosity; L scores were significantly related to religiosity. The value of the short-scale EPQ--R is recommended for further research. [Source: PI]

Kangas, Janet Leigh. 1988. "A Study of the Religious Attitudes and Behaviors of Seventh-Day Adventist Adolescents in North America Related to Their Family, Educational, and Church Backgrounds." Ph.D. Thesis, Andrews University.
Abstract: Problem. Why are Seventh-day Adventist youth leaving the church in North America? This study, the first report of a 10-year longitudinal research project, sought to identify attitudes and behaviors of Adventist adolescents and examine possible correlations with the religious backgrounds and influences of their homes, churches, and schools. Method. One church was randomly chosen for every 1,000 members within each local conference of the Seventh-day Adventist church in North America which totaled 695 congregations. Eventually 659 of the 695 church clerks responded, producing the names of 2,429 eligible baptized 15- and 16-year old youth. A questionnaire designed to report their backgrounds and attitudes regarding religious beliefs was mailed, with two follow- up mailings, and 1,511 teenagers responded. The statistical analyses used were correlations, t-tests, and multiple regression. Results. Over half the respondents felt positive about Seventh-day Adventism. Fifty-nine percent were positive about their baptism, and 53% regarded themselves as active members. Seventy-seven percent indicated positive intentions to remain Adventists. Of the 41% who wished they hadn't been baptized, 19% already identified themselves as inactive Adventists. Twenty-one percent expressed feelings of rebellion, with a perceived amount of restraint contributing to their rebellion. The 12 strongest influences or experiences, accounting for 47% of the variance of teenagers' intentions to remain Adventists, were agreement with standards (27% of the variance), frequency of personal prayer, love expressed by members, frequency of church attendance, the church meeting their spiritual needs, undesirable aspects of competition, aid felt toward independence, both parents as members of the church, frequency of Bible reading, perceived spiritual commitment of parents, closeness of relationships, and perception that members live what they believe. The regression was significant at the.001 level. Conclusions. Teenagers seek a religion based on relationships with and the spiritual perceptions of others. The home is the most important religious influence, with its perceived spiritual benefits influencing how much spiritual benefit is perceived from the school. Longer attendance at Adventist schools is the greatest influence on degree of agreement with the church's standards, but it is not associated with the respondents' present happiness with religion. Attendance also predicts spiritual intentions for the future. Frequency of church attendance and the extent to which the church meets youth's needs are strong predictors of teenagers intentions to remain Adventists. Teenagers prefer to learn religion through involvement and discussion, not traditional methods. [Source: DA]

Loomis, Barbara Diane. 1988. "Piety and Play: Young Women's Leisure in an Era of Evangelical Religion, 1790-1840." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California Berkeley.
Abstract: In the years of the Second Great Awakening, from the 1790s to 1837, thousands of young American women faced a crucial decision: whether to enjoy themselves in youthful fun or to follow the more austere regimen required by the revivalistic, Protestant churches. As a result of the growing militance of evangelical Protestantism, the ways in which people occupied their free time became an issue of pressing public concern. Religion and recreation are not necessarily incompatible. But in the early decades of the nineteenth century, the particular tenets of the evangelical denominations in the United States forced their followers to choose between the pursuit of amusements and the habits of a truly devout life. The perception of a fundamental tension between the urgings of the flesh and the desire for a higher spirituality reflected a long tradition of religious and ethical concerns that antedated the teachings of early nineteenth-century Protestantism. And some of the complaints against such amusements as dancing were, by the nineteenth century, already very old. However, the issue of young women's leisure surfaced in the period 1790 to 1840 in ways that revealed tensions which were unique to those years. Changes that had been a long time in the making suddenly crystallized, especially changes in the ways in which young people met and selected a partner for life. Alterations in the nature of parental authority, the increasing power of the peer group in guiding young people's behavior, uncertainties about what was proper in the interaction between the sexes, fears about widening class differences and new habits of consumption--all of these significant historical developments were reflected in the belief of evangelical church leaders that feminine leisure activities constituted an urgent problem. Evangelicals stood squarely opposed to the frivolous youth subculture that had become increasingly conspicuous by the end of the eighteenth century. [Source: DA]

Oyefeso, M. A. 1988. "Religion and Duty in Islam: Leaders, Youth and Women." Pp. 298-310 in Nigerian Studies in Religious Tolerance, edited by C. S. Momoh, M.S. Zahradeen, and S.O. Abogunrin. Ibadan: Centre for Black and African and Civilization (CBAAC) and National Association for Religious Tolerance (NARETO).

Shapiro, Z. V. I. 1988. "From Generation to Generation: Does Jewish Schooling Affect Jewish Identification?" Ph.D. Thesis, New York University, New York.
Abstract: This study tries to answer three primary questions: (1) What is the effect of Jewish schooling on Jewish religious identification? (2) What is the effect of the family on Jewish religious identification? (3) What is the effect of the interaction of Jewish schooling and family on Jewish religious identification? The study also explores the effect of Peers, Camps and Jewish Group Activity on Jewish identification and investigates how the predictors of Jewish identification vary by denomination. The students of grades five, six and seven in all the Atlanta Jewish schools were surveyed. The schools included two day schools, three Traditional, three Conservative and four Reform synagogue schools. At the same time the parents of all the students were surveyed. The final sample consists of 416 families in which both children and parents responded. Some of the major findings are: (1) The number of hours of Jewish schooling does not make a significant independent contribution to Total Jewish Identification after controlling for the influence of Family background, Peers, Camps and youth groups. This finding differs from previous findings. (2) Family background makes a large and significant contribution to Total Jewish Identification after controlling for Jewish Schooling, Peers, Camps and youth groups. (3) The interaction between the hours of Jewish Schooling and the Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns make a slight contribution to Total Jewish Identification. All other interaction variables are not significant. (4) The most important predictors of Total Jewish Identification are: Parents' Ritual Observance, Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns, the children's Jewish Group Activity and the Parents' Parenting Behaviors. (5) The Peers variable is negatively related to Total Jewish Identification. (6) Two sub-scales of Total Jewish Identification, Religious Observance and Charity, are predicted by the hours of Jewish Schooling. (7) The pattern of predictors of Total Jewish Identification varies by denominational affiliation. The total Jewish Identification of Traditional/Orthodox subjects is predicted by Parents' Ritual Observance and Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns. Reform Total Jewish Identification is predicted by Parents' Parenting Behaviors, subjects' Jewish Group Activity, and by Parents' Residence- Friendship Patterns. Conservative Total Jewish Identification is predicted by the subjects' Jewish Group Activity, years of Jewish Camping, Parents' Parenting Behaviors, and Peers. [Source: DA]

Steele, Lester L. 1988. "Identity Formation Theory and Youth Ministry." Christian Education Journal pp. 91-99.

Stott, G.N. 1988. "Familial Influence on Religious Involvement." Pp. 258-271 in The Religion and Family Connection: Social Science Perspectives, edited by D.L. Thomas. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center.

Watson, P. J., Robin Howard, Ralph W. Hood, Jr., and Ronald J. Morris. 1988. "Age and Religious Orientation." Review of Religious Research vol. 29, pp. 271-280.

Wright, Susan J. 1988. "Catechism, Confirmation and Communion: The Role of the Young in the Post-Reformation Church." Pp. 203-227 in Parish, Church and People, edited by S. Wright. London: Hutchinson.

Francis, Leslie J. 1987. "The Decline in Attitudes Towards Religion among 8-25 Year Olds." Educational Studies vol. 13, pp. 125-134.
Abstract: Employed the semantic differential scaling technique to compare the attitudes of 800 pupils from the 1st year in junior school to the 4th year in secondary school toward 7 different attitudinal areas. Attitudes toward religious education declined in a consistent linear fashion throughout, confirming earlier studies. Attitudes toward school and other school subjects did not follow the same pattern, confirming the peculiar place of religion and religious education within the child's attitudinal structure. [Source: PI]

Goodnow, Robert E. and Renato Tagiuri. 1987. "Religious Ethnocentrism and Its Recognition among Adolescent Boys." Pp. 232-239 in Error without Trial: Psychological Research on Antisemitism. Current Research on Antisemitism, Vol. 2, edited by Werner Bergmann. Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
Abstract: (from the chapter) the present study employs a technique that obtains measures of recognition and of ethnocentrism simultaneously and from the same subjects Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish students in a boys' preparatory school offering the four high school years [Source: PI]

LaNoue, Kaywin B. 1987. "A Comparative Study of the Spiritual Maturity Levels of the Christian School Senior and the Public School Senior in Texas Southern Baptist Churches with a Christian School." Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Mackenzie, Caroline. 1987. "The Search of Western Youth for Experience of the Divine through Indian Culture." Journal of Dharma vol. 12, pp. 145-149.

McGrath, Eileen Agnes. 1987. "Supportive or Non-Supportive Religious Beliefs of Children with Life-Threatening Diseases." Ph.D. Thesis, New York University.
Abstract: Problem. The purpose of this researcher was to investigate the relationship between religious beliefs, religious backgrounds, and the supportive effect of those on the attitudes toward sickness and death of children with diagnosed life-threatening disease. Procedure. Through the use of a semi-structured interview, this descriptive study involved an individual analysis of the content of religious beliefs held by children with life-threatening diseases. There were thirteen boys and twelve girls in the sample, aged nine to twelve, eleven diagnosed with acute lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia, nine with other neoplasms, four with cystic fibrosis, and one child with Coolies anemia. The children were affiliated with various Protestant and Catholic faiths. The Graebner Child Concept of God Inventory, consisting of twenty-two pictures and accompanying questions, was the instrument used by the investigator to assess the children's religious beliefs. The children's responses were tape-recorded verbatim and written by the researcher. The children answered the standardized questions and stated whether the designated concepts of God were supportive or non-supportive to them. The children's answer sheet and tapes were analyzed by the researcher and were also reviewed by a consultant of that child's religion. The parents completed a fourteen-item questionnaire which included the religious background, church attendance, and the child's and sibling's medical history. Findings. It was determined that all the children in this sample had religious beliefs, and for the majority of the children, these beliefs had a supportive effect upon their attitudes toward sickness and death. Seven children stated that one or two concepts of God were not supportive to them, although their overall responses indicated that they held supportive religious beliefs. It could not be concluded if a relationship existed among the religious affiliation, formal years or type of religious education, the children's age, sex, or indication of intelligence, and their supportive or non-supportive beliefs. Parental attitudes and beliefs toward religion and church attendance appeared to have an influence on the child and siblings. Most participants expressed a deep faith and trust in God who was supporting them throughout their illness. Parental attitudes toward the treatment and disease outcome also influenced the child. [Source: DA]

Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss. 1987. "The Development of Religious Beliefs and Commitment in Adolescence." Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: It has been proposed that adolescents are likely to change, expand, or abandon their religious beliefs because of cognitive development, existential anxiety, or pressure from parents or peers. Three hundred and ninety early, middle and late adolescents filled out a questionnaire assessing family demographics, religious background, beliefs, practices, and experiences, existential questioning, and closeness to family and peers. A follow-up interview further exploring religious beliefs, participation, experiences, and commitment was done with a subsample of 32 volunteers. Both questionnaire and interview data suggest that existential questioning is often associated with change in religious beliefs, most often with change away from religious orthodoxy, but probably does not cause these changes. For subjects with a strong commitment to orthodox Christian beliefs, existential questioning actually appears to strengthen beliefs. Change in religious beliefs seems usually to be triggered by personal trauma, such as the death of a loved one, or by substantial disappointment with important religious rites or leaders. It is proposed that the consequent doubt is analogous to the attributional hypothesis-testing shown elsewhere to be associated with unexpected negative outcomes. By contrast, social and emotional aspects of religious belief and participation appear to be associated with increased commitment, particularly for subjects with close family ties. Parents' religiousness is positively associated with all aspects of adolescent religiousness, especially in early and middle adolescence, and is negatively associated with religious change throughout adolescence. Peer influence on religiousness seems to be limited. [Source: DA]

Russ, Tim. 1987. "Adolescence." Pp. 35-43 in First Aid in Pastoral Care, edited by L. Virgo. Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark.

Tucker, Larry A. 1987. "Television, Teenagers, and Health." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 415-425.
Abstract: The effect of TV viewing on adolescents' health-related attitudes & practices & physical fitness level is investigated using data from questionnaires containing multiple assessment instruments completed by 406 white, Mc, high school Ms. Multiple discriminant analysis reveals that high levels of TV watching are significantly associated with poorer physical & emotional health, increased drug & alcohol use, & decreased church attendance, exercise, self-control, self-confidence, & Coll aspirations. Though the directionality of causality cannot be assumed, it is argued that since TV viewing is a passive pastime, the media has great power to shape attitudes & behaviors. At present, its messages largely promote antisocial norms & unhealthy lifestyles. Suggestions are proposed to help health professionals & other specialists develop & promote more healthy, constructive uses of TV. [Source: SA]

Ambert, Anne Marie and Jean Francois Saucier. 1986. "Adolescents' Overt Religiosity and Parents' Marital Status." International Journal of Comparative Sociology vol. 27, pp. 87-95.
Abstract: A comparison of religious behavior in adolescents (N = 275) from families of differing parental marital status, based on questionnaire data collected in public & private high schools & Colls in Montreal, Quebec. Adolescents from separated/divorced families had the lowest rate of church attendance, & those from legally intact families the highest; adolescents from widowed families were intermediate. Sex differences in similarities are also examined. The possible relevance of overt religiosity to family disruption & cohesion is examined. [Source: SA]

Boyle, John J. and Leslie J. Francis. 1986. "The Influence of Differing Church Aided School Systems on Pupil Attitude Towards Religion." Research in Education pp. 7-12.
Abstract: Studied attitudes toward religion of 1,205 12- and 13-yr-old pupils in Roman Catholic voluntary aided schools in relationship to whether they attended a middle school or a conventional secondary school. Results show that religious attitudes were not related to type of school attended but were related to Ss' sex, age, and church attendance. [Source: PI]

Danser, Donald Bruce. 1986. "The Impact of Religious Activity, Belief, and Commitment Upon Parental Discipline and Family Interaction." Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Abstract: Father-mother-son triads (N = 36) who were middle SES, of similar religious beliefs and church attendance, and with a prepubertal adolescent first son were distributed into a 2 x 2 (higher or lower church attendance x literal or mythological Christian beliefs). Parents and sons completed questionnaires, were interviewed, and underwent videotaped (and subsequently coded) family interaction tasks. The variables under study were parental control and support, family conflict, parental dominance, marital satisfaction, and adolescent self-image. Using multivariate ANOVAs, several differences between groups were found. First, mothers who were higher attenders were able to discipline their sons with less resentment than were mothers who were lower attenders. Second, fathers with either high attendance and literal belief or low attendance and mythological belief were more dominant than fathers with high attendance and mythological belief. Third, couples with mythological belief, lower attenders showed greater initial family agreement than did higher attenders. Finally, for both fathers and mothers, high attendance was associated with greater marital satisfaction than was low attendance. A second focus of the study was upon the relation of church attendance, religious belief, and religious commitment. In general, parents who held literal beliefs stated they felt a more intense religious commitment in almost every area. This difference, however, rarely translated into differences on parental discipline or family interactions. Using a multiple regression analysis, a wide range of religious variables were found to predict parental discipline variables in a multifaceted and complex way. [Source: DA]

Eve, Raymond A. and Francis B. Harrold. 1986. "Creationism, Cult Archaeology, and Other Pseudoscientific Beliefs: A Study of College Students." Youth and Society vol. 17, pp. 396-421.
Abstract: An empirical inquiry into the prevalence & etiology of pseudoscientific beliefs (including certain tenets of biblical literalism & sensationalistic archaeological claims about ancient astronauts, lost tribes, sunken continents, monsters, etc). Data were collected from approximately 400 undergraduates at a large public U using closed-ended modified Likert-scale items. Belief levels were found to be strikingly high for a wide variety of pseudoscientific beliefs (20%-60% belief in each phenomenon). A factor-analytic statistical procedure indicated that the domains of items relating to Christian fundamentalism & those relating to "cult" science were highly internally homogeneous but largely uncorrelated between these two domains. Fundamentalist Christian beliefs were correlated, not surprisingly, with conservative outlooks in religion & politics, but also with lower grades, less outside reading, more authoritarian & dogmatic personalities, & support for the so-called Moral Majority. The etiology of the cult science items was much less clear. Older students were less likely to hold such beliefs, & they were weakly related to an internal locus of control. It is concluded that pseudoscientific beliefs have several different likely origins. Suggestions are offered for future research & for science education. [Source: SA]

Funderburk, Charles. 1986. "Religion, Political Legitimacy and Civil Violence: A Survey of Children and Adolescents." Sociological Focus vol. 19, pp. 289-298.
Abstract: Religious institutions are an agent of childhood socialization with consequences for political learning. The results of a questionnaire survey (N = 736 children & adolescents) in Key Largo, Fla, indicate that religious beliefs are associated with support for the political system, its symbols & laws, &, to a lesser extent, political authority figures. Conversely, strength of religious commitment is negatively associated with approval of political violence. The strength of these associations increases with age, suggesting that the longer & more intensely religious beliefs are held the more likely they are to influence political attitudes. [Source: SA]

Higgins, Gregory C. 1986. "Ethics and High School Students." Religious Education pp. 288-294.

Jaspard, J. M. 1986. "Jesus Christ as Identification-Model for the Adolescents: Report of Several Studies." Pp. 256-263 in Current Issues in the Psychology of Religion, edited by J. Belzen and J.M. van der Lans. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Keown, Duane. 1986. "What Utah Children Believe." Humanist vol. 46, pp. 21-26.
Abstract: An examination of the roots of particular beliefs of members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), eg, that curses by God caused the dark skin of some races, & that Mormons need to rear large families. It is argued that the rigid adherance to these beliefs & others that stem from revelations to their prophets cause the Church & its members a great deal of social, ecological, & intellectual strife in the late twentieth century. The results of a survey of Salt Lake City, Utah, teenagers (N = 508) reveal wide acceptance of the Old Testament version of man's beginning in the Garden of Eden, original sin, & the destruction of earth life by a universal flood in Noah's time; however, only the most orthodox youth continue to believe the Mormon theological teaching that dark skin originated with curses by God of sinful men. [Source: SA]

Laurent, Carl Robert. 1986. "Selected Variables Related to Alienation from Religion among Church-Related High School Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
Abstract: Problem. One of the most important concerns of parents and church leaders is alienation from religion among church-related adolescents. This research was conducted to discover relationships that might exist between alienation from religion and other selected variables. Method. Three hundred and ninety students were selected by a stratified random method from among all students attending three church-related youth conferences. Each teenager was asked to respond to an inventory which consisted of 162 statements divided into eighteen attitude scales. One scale measured alienation from religion, while the other seventeen measured the independent variables. The major statistical method used in analyzing the data was multiple regression analysis. Results. The alienation scores revealed that 12.8 percent of the adolescents might be considered alienated from religion in general, while 51 percent are alienated from some aspect of their religion. Items which elicited the most alienation concerned experiences with the church, uninteresting sermons, deficient devotional life, and religious restrictions on life-style. Correlations between the alienation-from-religion scale and the other scales were all significant except one. Therefore, all but one of the research hypotheses were supported. Four of the five highest correlations dealt with church influences. No home influences ranked higher than tenth. Three of the scales, which were not included in Dudley's 1977 study, Media Influence, Self-Esteem, and Peer Influence, ranked third, sixth, and seventh, respectively. Conclusions. Alienation from religion in church-related adolescents is highly correlated with the quality of their relationships with parents and other authority figures, peer groups, their own self-concepts, media influence, and the church. As the quality of these key relationships is improved, parents and church youth leaders can expect a reduction in adolescent alienation from religion. [Source: DA]

McAuley, E. Nancy and Moira B. Mathieson. 1986. Faith without Form: Beliefs of Catholic Youth. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward.
Abstract: Results of a study in which Catholic youth from the Archdiocese of Washington, D.C., talked about religion, morality, and the Catholic Church, expressing their spiritual struggles and their frustrations with certain aspects of organized religion. [Source: PR]

Mueller, D.P. and P.W. Cooper. 1986. "Religious Interest and Involvement of Young Adults: A Research Note." Review of Religious Research vol. 27, pp. 245-254.

Prager, Karen J. 1986. "Identity Development, Age, and College Experience in Women." Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 147, pp. 31-36.
Abstract: The identity status - achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, or diffusion - of 86 undergraduate Coll Fs aged 18-23 was assessed via interviews covering occupation, political & religious ideology, & sexual values. Overall identity status showed a significant association with the women's ages & Coll experience. Achievement women were older & had been in Coll longer than women in the other statuses. Occupational & political identity status were each significantly associated with Coll experience. No association was found for religious or sexual identity status. The results support Erik Erikson's notion (Identity: Youth and Crisis, New York: Norton, 1968) that identity achievement is the most mature outcome of the identity crisis & extended his theory to women. [Source: SA]

Tucker, Gordon. 1986. "The Jewish Point of View." Pro Mundi Vita Bulletin vol. 105, pp. 24-31.

Hunsberger, B. 1985. "Parent-University Student Agreement on Religious and Nonreligious Issues." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 24, pp. 314-320.

Kalia, Ashok K. and S. S. Mathur. 1985. "Value Preferences of Adolescents Studying in Schools with Different Socio-Economic Environments." Asian Journal of Psychology and Education vol. 15, pp. 1-6.
Abstract: Compared differences in the values of adolescents studying in schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) environments, using 454 adolescents (aged 14-27+ yrs) from high, medium, and low SES schools. Ss were administered a test designed to measure the relative prominence of 6 values: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Results show significant differences in theoretical, economic, and social values among the groups studied. [Source: PI]

McNeel, Steven P. and Philip L. Thorsen. 1985. "A Developmental Perspective on Christian Faith and Dogmatism." The High School Journal vol. 68, pp. 211-220.
Abstract: Identified mutual implications in the areas of dogmatism, the nature of mature biblical faith, and a focus on human growth and development during the late adolescent and adult years. 65 freshman and sophomore undergraduates were administered scales measuring dogmatism, doctrinal orthodoxy, and styles of religiosity (external, internal, interactional). 41 Ss had previously been administered the Defining Issues Test; most Ss completed a 119-item questionnaire to measure attitudes toward, beliefs about, and behavior relevant to the Christian life, the Bible, authority, decision making and seeking God's will, difficult doctrinal questions, the Christian, and the community. Results show that dogmatism scores were somewhat high; Ss more orthodox doctrinally tended to show more dogmatism. Ss who viewed their Christian commitment as a quest (interactional) tended to be more dogmatic. Dogmatism was significantly related to Ss' reliance on external authority but not to their reliance on internal feelings or their tendency to think in noncritical, global terms. [Source: PI]

Parker, Mitchell S. 1985. "Identity and the Development of Religious Thinking." New Directions for Child Development pp. 43-60.
Abstract: Discusses the adolescent search for religious identity, using examples from the Bible, and compares theories of D. Elkind (1970) and J. Fowler (1981) on religious development and identity formation. The relationship of cults, conversion, stability, and defection to identity are studied, and research with 49 15-26 yr old converts is reviewed. Data show that (1) some degree of stress is required for religious development to proceed and (2) identity development is reflected in the normal course of religious development. Forms of religious expression are distinguished. [Source: PI]

Potvin, Raymond H. and Douglas M. Sloane. 1985. "Parental Control, Age, and Religious Practice." Review of Religious Research vol. 27, pp. 3-14.
Abstract: Previous research (see SA 32:2/84N8229) revealed significant declines in religious practice with age for adolescents from Baptist, Catholic, & mainline Protestant denominations. This research is extended to determine whether other characteristics of adolescents' religiosity &/or parental religiousness & control have an effect on that decline. Data on 868 adolescents of these religious groups show that, while parental religiosity & adolescents' religious belief are strongly related to religious practice, neither affects the decline in practice with age. It is also found that the decline in religious practice with age varies jointly across categories of religious experience & parental control. [Source: SA]

Rigby, Ken and Tony R. Densley. 1985. "Religiosity and Attitude toward Institutional Authority among Adolescents." Journal of Social Psychology vol. 125, pp. 723-728.
Abstract: Examined the relationship between attitude to authority among 114 male and 113 female 14-27 yr olds attending Catholic high schools and (a) expressed belief in God and (b) reported frequency of church attendance. No sex differences were found on either of the indices of religiosity, but females were significantly more proauthority than were males. For both sexes, Ss expressing a belief in God were, as predicted, significantly more proauthority than were others. Reported frequency of church attendance was positively related to proauthority attitudes for males only, suggesting that attitudes toward authority may have different implications for the sexes. [Source: PI]

Silber, Tomas J. and Mary Reilly. 1985. "Spiritual and Religious Concerns of the Hospitalized Adolescent." Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 217-224.
Abstract: 114 hospitalized 11-29 yr olds completed a Likert scale questionnaire on spiritual and religious concerns. ANOVA was performed to correlate responses with sex, race, religion, type of school, and severity of illness. A subgroup of Ss, those with more serious disease, experienced intensified spiritual and religious concerns. Religious concerns were more frequent among Blacks than Whites, Catholics than Protestants, and parochial school students than public school students. In response to the questionnaire, over 15% of the Ss requested further help. Findings suggest that training in adolescent health care and the provision of services to teenagers ought to include teaching in the area of spiritual and religious values of teenagers, with emphasis on the hospitalized adolescent. [Source: PI]

Sinclair, Donna. 1985. "Few and Determined: Teens Stay in the Church." Ecumenism vol. 78, pp. 3-6.

Wilson, R. Ward. 1985. "Christianity-Biased and Unbiased Dogmatism's Relationships to Different Christian Commitments, Including Conversion." High School Journal vol. 68, pp. 374-388.
Abstract: Administered a Christianity scale, a short form of the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, a prejudice evaluation measure, and an optimism toward the future scale to 2 high school populations totaling 289 students. One group consisted of youth and leaders of Young Life, an interdenominational organization with a soft-sell evangelistic and total life concern; the other group consisted of students from a rural southern high school in a predominantly Baptist county. Using a 4-group design, based on stated religious position and testing times, there were 10 major conditions. Four groups were tested twice, 3 groups were pretested only, and 3 groups were posttested only. Findings show a negative relationship between conservative Christian beliefs and both the dogmatism and nonbiased dogmatism, but these beliefs were unrelated to Christianity-biased dogmatism. It appears that religious people who are more interpersonally related with people outside their religious circles tend to be less dogmatic than those who are not. An information-processing framework is posited to explain the data. [Source: PI]

Barlev, M. 1984. "Cultural-Characteristics and Group Image of Religious Youth." Youth & Society vol. 16, pp. 153-170.

Boyd, Mary Maxine. 1984. "The Religiosity of Black Youth in Transition." M.A. Thesis, California State University Dominguez Hills.

Degelman, Douglas, Peter Mullen, and Nancy Mullen. 1984. "Development of Abstract Religious Thinking: A Comparison of Roman Catholic and Nazarene Youth." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 3, pp. 44-49.
Abstract: Administered a research instrument, Thinking About the Bible, to 130 Roman Catholic and 105 Nazarene 3rd-22th graders to examine changes in religious thinking and to explore the relationship between abstract religious thinking and literalism in the interpretation of Bible stories. Results show that abstract religious thinking increased over grade levels and that Roman Catholic Ss employed more abstract responses, particularly at higher grade levels. Literalism was largely independent of abstract religious thinking. [Source: PI]

Levine, Saul V. 1984. "Alienated Jewish Youth and Religious Seminaries: An Alternative to Cults?" Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 183-199.
Abstract: Examines the backgrounds, personalities, and experiences of 110 male (aged 18-29 yrs) North American and other Western Jewish youth who left their families, lifestyles, and their "charted courses" to enter orthodox religious seminaries in Israel, called Yeshivot. The majority of the Ss were from conservative, reform, or progressive Jewish homes or from secular-humanistic backgrounds. Some of the Ss reported that their parents felt that they had "strayed," were acting self-destructively, and were "losing" valuable time during which they could be pursuing higher education, careers, or other middle-class activities. Other Ss reported that their parents felt that they had done no better than joining cults, although cults were pictured as being somewhat more alien. It is suggested that these Ss gravitated to Israel because it was inculcated, even subtly, into their consciousness, sometimes in spite of the efforts of their parents. It is also suggested that much more could be learned about religious cults and their members by using a more "palatable" or acceptable option or model. [Source: PI]

Nelsen, Hart M. and Alice Kroliczak. 1984. "Parental Use of the Threat "God Will Punish": Replication and Extension." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 23, pp. 267-277.
Abstract: Tested C. Z. Nunn's (see record 1965-04617-001) thesis that, to secure compliance from their children, powerless parents tell them that God will punish them if they misbehave and that youths who subscribe to this belief have higher levels of self-blame and greater feeling that they should be obedient than youths who do not. Data were collected from 3,000 children in Grades 4-8. Findings show little support for the hypothesis that powerless parents use this technique; however, the belief that "God punishes youths who are bad" was positively associated with self-blame and obedience. An additional variable (subscribing in general to the image of God as punishing or angry) is proposed. Findings agree with Nunn's linkage of parental coalition with God and the child's benevolent image of God; the malevolent view was linked with a lower level of internalization. [Source: PI]

Setiawani, Mary Go. 1984. "An Analytical Study of Perceived Childhood Familial and Religious Educational Background as Related to Religious Commitment in Adulthood." Ed.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Dallas.
Abstract: Problem. The problem of the study was to investigate the relationship between the religious commitment and the preceived childhood background of familial and religious training of members from selected Southern Baptist churches in Tarrant County, Texas. Procedure. The sampled subjects were 480 members selected at random from eight Southern Baptist churches in Tarrant County, Texas. A questionnarie was developed to measure the religious commitment of the subjects, childhood backgrounds of family relationships, home religious training, and church religious education. Each member to be sampled received the questionnaire through the mail. The statistic formula of Chi-square k-sample was used to determine whether religious commitment was dependent on childhood family relationships, home religious training, and church religious education. The Chi-square value was tested at .05 significant level. Findings and Conclusion. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) Ninety-five percent of the respondents had some religious training during their childhood, 87 percent had some during their youth. (2) Fifty-three percent of the respondents made their profession of faith during their childhood, 30 percent in their youth, and 17 percent in their adulthood. (3) Religious commitment is independent of the perceived childhood family relationship. (4) Religious commitment is dependent on the perceived home religious training during childhood. (5) Religious commitment is independent of perceived childhood church religious education (Sunday School). (6) Religious commitment is dependent on the combination of childhood family relationships, home religious training, and church religious education. [Source: DA]

Seyfarth, Leonard H., Knud S. Larsen, Kris Lamont, Chris Haasch, Tom Hale, and Dierk Haskin. 1984. "Attitude toward Evangelism: Scale Development and Validity." Journal of Social Psychology vol. 123, pp. 55-61.
Abstract: In the item-selection phase of a 2-part study, 130 18-37 yr old undergraduates participated in the development of a Likert-type scale measuring attitude toward evangelism. In the reliability and validity phase, 124 18-39 yr old undergraduates participated. The final scale, consisting of 21 internally consistent items, had high internal reliability and related highly to fanaticism. Factor analyses were performed on the evangelism scale and S. Putney and R. Middleton's (see PA, Vol 36:3GD85P) 6-item fanaticism scale. The evangelism scale consisted of 2 major independent theoretical components: "respect for the courage to stand up for one's beliefs," and "interpersonal approach." A high evangelism score was associated with relative youth, being of any religion (rather than none), being non-Catholic, being Protestant, being of a high-outreach Protestant denomination, and being active in religion. It did not discriminate on sex, class standing, or academic major. Attitude toward evangelism appeared to be a multidimensional concept, related to, but distinct from, fanaticism, and having specified relationships with other variables. It is suggested that positive attitude toward evangelism may be related to heightened adolescent role confusion. [Source: PI]

Short, Robert L. 1984. "Young Adults, the Popular Arts, and the Bible." Explor vol. 7, pp. 61-69.

Strommen, Merton, John Forliti, and Mark Wickstrom. 1984. "The Myth of the Generation Gap." Christianity Today pp. 14-19.

Thwaites, Hugh S. 1984. "Spiritual Adolescence - a Catholic Viewpoint." Pp. 169-193 in The Spiritual Hunger of the Modern Child, edited by J. Bennett and C. Williams. Charles Town, W. Va.: Claymont Communications.

Tobacyk, Jerome, Mark J. Miller, and Glenda Jones. 1984. "Paranormal Beliefs of High School Students." Psychological Reports vol. 55, pp. 255-261.
Abstract: 193 11th graders were administered the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a total Paranormal Belief score and scores on 7 paranormal subscales (Traditional Religious Belief, Psi Belief, Witchcraft, Spiritualism, Superstition, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Precognition). Ss' paranormal scale/subscale scores were compared to those of 424 college students. Results indicate that, in general, high school Ss were greater disbelievers in paranormal phenomena than college Ss. High school Ss showed significantly less belief than college Ss on the total Paranormal Scale and on the subscales Psi Belief, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Witchcraft. The number of science courses taken by high school Ss correlated significantly and inversely with total Paranormal Scale scores, Traditional Religious Belief scores, and Psi Belief scores, and their Traditional Religious Belief scores were significantly and directly associated with GPA. High school Ss in the most accelerated academic track showed significantly less belief on superstition than Ss in other tracks. [Source: PI]

Baer, Max F. 1983. Dealing in Futures: The Story of a Jewish Youth Movement. Washington, D.C.: B'nai B'rith International.

Buhrmann, Hans G. and Maxwell K. Zaugg. 1983. "Religion and Superstition in the Sport of Basketball." Journal of Sport Behavior vol. 6, pp. 146-157.
Abstract: Superstitious beliefs and practices were compared with the church attendance and religious affiliation of 529 12-22 yr old basketball players. Ss were administered a 40-item questionnaire in which Likert-type questions were divided into 7 categories: team ritual, game, pregame, prayer, coach, clothing and appearance, and fetish. There were 118 Catholic, 182 Mormon, and 142 Protestant Ss. Results support the notion that superstitious behaviors are positively related to church attendance (i.e., the higher the frequency of church attendance, the greater the occurrence of superstitious beliefs and practices). Mormon Ss attended church significantly more frequently and were also significantly more likely to subscribe to superstitions when compared to Catholics and Protestants. Attempts are made to account for some of the differences in terms of the religious environment in southern Alberta, where the study took place. [Source: PI]

Collins, Mary. 1983. "Is the Adult Church Ready for Liturgy with Young Christians?" Pp. 3-17 in The Sacred Play of Children, edited by D. Apostolos-Cappadona.

Dudley, Roger L. 1983. "Adolescent Heresy: The Rejection of Parental Religious Values." Andrews University Seminary Studies vol. 21, pp. 51-59.
Abstract: Some adolescents who have been reared in religious homes reject parental values and may even make a permanent break with the church. This phenomenon may perhaps be best understood in the light of the adolescent experience. Like other life stages adolescence has its developmental tasks, among which are the gaining of emotional and economic independence and the gaining of a separate identity. Life in complex, technological, Western society has prolonged these tasks at the same time that youth are reaching physical and sexual maturity at earlier ages. The result often is that youth may seek a symbolic statement of independence from a rejection of parental values. However, youth do want values--it is just that their sense of personal integrity demands that they personally choose the values. Parents and leaders work with these natural forces when they facilitate the feelings of adulthood in the adolescent. This involves giving responsibility, facilitating gradual independence, allowing decision-making, teaching how to make decisions from principles, and modeling attractive and satisfying religion. [Source: RI]

Gorsuch, Richard L. and G. Daniel Venable. 1983. "Development of an "Age Universal" I-E Scale." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 22, pp. 181-187.
Abstract: Describes the development of an adaptation of the Religious Orientation Inventory, a measure of G. W. Allport's (1950, 1954, 1959, 1966) concept of extrinsic (E) and intrinsic (I) meanings of religion, suitable for use with children and adolescents. Three studies with 101 adults, 90 11th graders, and 257 5th and 7th graders indicated that there was no loss of quality with the age-universal scale. The modified scale is suitable for children down to the 5th grade level (although verbal ability needs to be taken into account) and permits the investigation of developmental trends in religious orientations. [Source: PI]

Sloane, Douglas M. and Raymond H. Potvin. 1983. "Age Differences in Adolescent Religiousness." Review of Religious Research vol. 25, pp. 142-154.
Abstract: Review of previous research suggests that declining religiousness during adolescence may be more pronounced for some groups than for others. Interview data from a national probability sample of adolescents aged 13-18 (N = 1,121) conducted in 1975 are analyzed to determine the effect of sex & denomination on the change with age of religious orthodoxy & practice. While sex did not interact with age in affecting either dimension, denomination interacted with age in affecting both. Further, sex & denomination interacted with each other in affecting both practice & orthodoxy. The decline in religiousness during adolescence is seen to be more complex than was previously recognized. [Source: SA]

Spilka, Bernard and Greg Schmidt. 1983. "General Attribution Theory for the Psychology of Religion: The Influence of Event-Character on Attributions to God." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 22, pp. 326-339.
Abstract: General attribution theory is presented and applied to the problem of God-attribution. Hypothesizing that religious attributions are a function of situational and stylistic factors, this work deals with event-character and contextual influences that are aspects of the former. 12 Short stories picturing positive or negative social, economic, and medical occurrences varying in importance were written. In the initial experiment these were administered under personal or impersonal-reference conditions to 135 respondents. The degree to which God was seen as involved in each happening was assessed. A 4-factor ANOVA revealed that God-attributions varied meaningfully with event-domain, positive-negativeness, and event-importance. Significant interactions among these factors and with the personal-impersonal condition were also observed. In the second experiment, an experimental manipulation of a personal-impersonal experimental condition produced evidence that more God-attributions result in personal than impersonal circumstances. An attempt to assess the effect of a church vs. a nonchurch context resulted in negative findings. [Source: RI]

Archer, Sally L. 1982. "The Lower Age Boundaries of Identity Development." Child Development vol. 53, pp. 1551-1556.
Abstract: 80 female and 80 male early and midadolescent 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th graders were interviewed to document the lower age boundaries of ego identity development in the content areas of vocational choice, religious beliefs, political philosophies, and sex-role preferences. Frequency of the identity achievement status increased significantly with increase in grade level. The diffusion and foreclosure statuses were most evident at all grade levels. Frequency of identity status differed by content area, with the majority of instances of identity achievement in the vocational choice and religious beliefs content areas, moratorium in vocational choice, foreclosure in sex-role preferences, and identity diffusion in political philosophies. Similar patterns of development were found for both sexes. [Source: PI]

Buhrmann, H., B. Brown, and M. Zaugg. 1982. "Superstitious Beliefs and Behavior: A Comparison of Male and Female Basketball Players." Journal of Sport Behavior vol. 5, pp. 175-185.
Abstract: Examined the superstitious beliefs and behavior of 272 male and 257 female basketball players aged 12-22 yrs. Likert-type questions on superstitious beliefs and behavior were divided into 7 categories; clothing and appearance, fetish, pregame, game, team ritual, prayer, and coach. Results reveal little difference as to number of superstitions endorsed and degree of superstitiousness between male and female Ss. Findings contradict some previous research results. Gender differences were, however, discovered in terms of the type of superstitions to which they ascribed, differences that can, at least in part, be accounted for by differential socialization practices of males and females. [Source: PI]

Critchfield, Arthur Barry. 1982. "Religious Achievement of Hearing Impaired Youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the religious achievement levels of hearing impaired youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in comparison with that of other youth in the same Church. A test of L.D.S. religious knowledge was developed and comparable groups of 72 deaf and 77 non-deaf subjects were evaluated as to their knowledge of basic Church doctrine. Deaf subjects' responses were evaluated to assess what factors lead to improved scores of religious knowledge. Results of the study indicated that hearing impaired youth scored significantly lower on the test of religious knowledge than similar non-hearing impaired young people. Recommendations for improved programming and service delivery were made. [Source: DA]

Currie, Raymond, Leo F. Klug, and Charles R. McCombs. 1982. "Intimacy and Saliency: Dimensions for Ordering Religious Experiences." Review of Religious Research vol. 24, pp. 19-32.
Abstract: Rodney Stark proposed a taxonomy of religious experiences based on the degree of intimacy between the human actor and the divine. Those who report higher order experiences on the dimension of intimacy should also report lower order experiences. A logical extension of the taxonomy would suggest that the higher order, more intimate experiences should also be more salient to the individuals. A test of these two hypotheses was conducted on a city-wide random sample of young adults, 15 to 24 years of age. There is support for the taxonomy, although not all experiences fit the model. The saliency of the experiences follows a different pattern. It is not determined by the higher order of the experience but rather by the cumulative effect of having more experiences. [Source: RI]

Dickinson, George E. 1982. "Changing Religious Behavior of Adolescents 1964-1979." Youth and Society vol. 13, pp. 283-288.
Abstract: Data on religious behavior were gathered through questionnaires administered to the tenth, eleventh, & twelfth grades in 1964, 1974, & 1979 (N = 367, 432, & 459 Rs, respectively) in a northeast Tex community with a 1970 population of 5,000 & a racial composition of approximately 66% white & 33% black. Chi-square, gamma, & Z tests were used in statistical analysis. Racial desegregation of the high schools was effected in 1970. Previous studies had revealed a general decrease in adolescent religious behavior in this community from 1964 to 1974. The study of 1979 showed some evidence of a reverse trend. The reversal of declining religious behavior was especially true for Ms (black & white) in all three measures of religious involvement - f of church attendance, f of Bible reading, & whether grace was said at mealtime. While the decline for Fs was more subtle over the decade 1964-1974, the decline in religious involvement generally continued in 1979. Although M religious behavior for the two races is changing in the same direction over time, & F behavior for both groups is going its way, the gap between the sexes tends to have narrowed slightly since 1974. A curvilinear pattern in religious involvement over the 15-year period exists for the Ms - both black & white. [Source: SA]

Duvall, Henry. 1982. "Youth Demanding Change in the Black Church." The Crisis vol. 89, p. 11.

Farel, Anita M. 1982. Early Adolescence and Religion: A Status Study. Carrboro, NC: Center for Early Adolescence.

Fullerton, J. Timothy and Bruce Hunsberger. 1982. "A Unidimensional Measure of Christian Orthodoxy." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 21, pp. 317-326.
Abstract: Describes the conceptualization, development, and cross-validation of the 24-item Christian Orthodoxy Scale. Eight studies involved samples of Canadian high school students, university students, the parents of university students, and Australian university students. Evidence is presented that the scale is unidimensional, reliable, and valid. [Source: PI]

Hoge, Dean R. and Ella I. Smith. 1982. "Normative and Non-Normative Religious Experience among High School Youth." Sociological Analysis vol. 43, pp. 69-81.
Abstract: A sample of 451 Catholic, Baptist, and Methodist tenth-grade youth were asked about definite religious experiences in their lives, and 58 percent reported them. Most took place in church services or at a retreat or camp. The authors categorized the experiences using the Elkind-Elkind and Stark typologies and found that with one additional category the Elkind-Elkind typology was apt. The "salvation or inspiration" type is the most common, especially among the Baptists and Methodists. This type is normative in those denominations, and church life encourages it. The analysis of factors encouraging the experiences showed the necessity of distinguishing normative from non-normative religious experiences, since their determinants are different. The former are encouraged in certain denominations, and their occurrence is patterned. The latter are idiosyncratic and unpatterned. [Source: RI]

Potvin, Raymond H. and Che Fu Lee. 1982. "Adolescent Religion: A Developmental Approach." Sociological Analysis vol. 43, pp. 131-144.
Abstract: The relationship between practice & internal religiousness (belief & experience) is examined with 1975 interview data from a national probability sample of adolescents (N = 1,121 aged 13-18). At ages 13-14 the influence of practice on internal religiousness was found to be greater than the reverse process. At ages 15-16 the influence of belief on practice is greater than the influence of practice on experiential religiousness. At ages 17-18 the greater influence of practice on internal religiousness is reestablished. The results are interpreted in the context of a theory of religious development. [Source: SA]

Schab, Fred. 1982. "Early Adolescence in the South: Attitudes Regarding the Home and Religion." Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 605-612.
Abstract: Summarizes the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding religion and the home situation of 751 8th graders (180 White males, 181 Black males, 92 White females, and 198 Black females) from 22 middle schools in Georgia. Differences attributable to sex and race were evident. Living with both parents or with just one (this was usually the mother for Blacks) was an obvious cause for perceptual dissimilarities. Black mothers were seen as more restrictive than White parents. White males claimed to have more social freedom than the other 3 groups. Black females conformed to their mothers' dictates yet more had run away from home than their White counterparts, and more Black than White males had considered doing so. Black males were more adamant about having fewer children of their own and indicated that they would treat them differently from the way they themselves were treated. The Black experience in the South was an important factor in Black Ss' views on the home. Ss felt that many adults were hypocritical in their religiosity, but they did not alter their childhood ideals despite lapses in religious education. Religious traditions are still very strong in the South, perhaps more so among Blacks than Whites. [Source: PI]

Stevenson, Robert M. 1982. "Children of the Parsonage." Pastoral Psychology vol. 30, pp. 179-186.
Abstract: This article reports on a retreat and survey done with twenty-three youth, all of whom were children of clergy in the Louisville Annual Conference, the United Methodist Church. It explores their opinions and attitudes toward various facets of parsonage life, including general satisfaction, parsonage moves, family and church expectations. It discusses the need for increased study of parsonage children and outlines common features of their experience. [Source: RI]

Buhrmann, Hans G. and Maxwell K. Zaugg. 1981. "Superstitions among Basketball Players: An Investigation of Various Forms of Superstitious Beliefs and Behavior among Competitive Basketballers at the Junior High School to University Level." Journal of Sport Behavior vol. 4, pp. 163-174.
Abstract: Examined the superstitious beliefs and behaviors of male and female competitive basketball players in urban junior and senior high schools, one college, and one university in Lethbridge, Canada. Data were gathered from 310 athletes (158 males and 152 females; ages 12-22 yrs) by a specially designed questionnaire. The independent variables of sociodemographic and athletic measurements were compared by employing L. A. Goodman and W. H. Kruskal's (1954) gamma method of association, with the dependent variables measuring beliefs and behavior in various categories of superstition. Results reveal that 40% of the tested superstitious beliefs and behaviors exhibited statistical significance. Results also indicate the following: (a) females were more likely than males to subscribe to superstitions; (b) age and measures of athletic participation demonstrated a consistently positive relationship to superstitious beliefs and practices; (c) a strong relationship was discovered between church attendance and several prayer-related ritualistic beliefs and practices; (d) in the sport of basketball, superstitions are prevalent; and (e) superstitious beliefs and behaviors varied with sex, age, and various measures of athletic involvement. [Source: PI]

Devonshire, Winfield J., Jr. 1981. "Two Models of Ministry: A Study of Confirmation Models and the Views of Lutheran Youth as to Their Church Identity." Thesis, Lancaster Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to seek clarity in the current Lutheran Church in America's definition of confirmation. The study proceeded on the hypothesis that there is correlation between a congregation's practice of confirmation and the perceptions of youth regarding their identity and participation in that congregation. The project identified two models of confirmation ministry on the basis of predominate characteristics within that ministry. Eighth and ninth grade youth from six congregations equally representing the two models participated in the interviews. A content analysis of the interview responses indicated certain tendencies in youth perceptions in relation to dominant characteristics of the two models of confirmation ministry. [Source: RI]

Friesen, Barbara Kay. 1981. "Values and Recreational Interests of Thirteen to Fifteen- Year-Old Seventh-Day Adventist Youth Relevant to the Pathfinder Club Program in the State of Michigan." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Utah.
Abstract: A questionnaire was administered to 235 thirteen to fifteen-year-old Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) youth in Michigan. The subjects were selected from a random sample of SDA churches in Michigan that sponsored both Pathfinder Clubs and church schools. The purpose of the study was to determine the overall values and recreational interests of thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen-year-old SDA youth relevant to the Pathfinder Club program in the state of Michigan in comparison to Rokeach's values survey. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test was used to compare the overall value ratings with a theoretical distribution of value ratings and the overall recreational interest ratings with a theoretical distribution of recreational interest ratings. All of the terminal and instrumental values identified by Rokeach were considered important by the SDA youth. A Spearman rank-order correlation showed a significant difference in the way the SDA subjects and Rokeach subjects ranked the combined terminal and instrumental values. The greatest difference was in the rank assigned salvation with the SDA subjects ranking salvation higher than the Rokeach subjects. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test was used to compare the recreational interest ratings with a theoretical distribution of recreational interest ratings. Fifteen of the activities offered by the Pathfinder Club were considered important by SDA youth. Eight of the activities were considered of neutral importance. The Chi-square test was used to compare value and recreational interest responses among the three age groups included in the study. No significant differences existed in the stated values of thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen-year-old SDA youth. Significant differences existed between age groups in two recreational interests. Awards ceremonies and earned awards were significantly more important to thirteen-year-olds than to fourteen or fifteen-year-olds. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test was used to compare value and recreational interest responses between sexes, between baptized and non-baptized SDA church members, between current Pathfinder Club members and non-members, and between those who had never been Pathfinder Club members and those who had at sometime been members. No significant differences existed between the stated values of any of the comparison groups in relation to the expected mean. However, a Spearman rank-order correlation showed a significant difference between the rank orders assigned to the combined terminal and instrumental values by SDA male and female subjects. A Spearman rank-order correlation also showed a significant difference between the rank orders assigned to the combined terminal and instrumental values by Rokeach male and female subjects. Although a male-female dichotomy was indicated, a Spearman rank-order correlation between SDA male and Rokeach male subjects and between SDA female and Rokeach female subjects showed significant differences in rank-orders assigned by each comparison group indicating different male- female dichotomies. Several recreational interests showed significant differences in the importance attached to them by SDA male and female subjects. Female subjects attached significantly more importance to domestic skills, discussing and learning, and developing personal talent. Male subjects attached significantly more importance to building and repairing things. No significant differences existed between the baptized and non-baptized SDA youth in their recreational interests. Eight recreational interests were ranked significantly more important by current Pathfinder Club members than by non-members. They were camping and hiking, patriotic ceremonies, ceremonies, marching and drill, awards ceremonies, nature and conservation, earned awards, and personal awards. Three recreational interests, camping and hiking, ceremonies, and parties, were ranked significantly more important by sometime members than by never-members. Factor analysis determined nine values factors and seven recreational interest factors in the data. Three significant canonical correlations were found among values factors and recreational interests factors. [Source: DA]

Hauser, James. 1981. "Adolescents and Religion." Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 309-320.
Abstract: Reviews research on the forces that influence adolescents' decisions about moral questions, the lack of appeal of traditional religions, and the popularity of alternate forms of religion (e.g., cults) among members of this age group. It is suggested that if the churches made a more conscious effort to reach youths and deal with their problems, the church could provide more assurance and guidance for them at a crucial time in their lives. However, it is first the parents' responsibility to form a strong, supportive relationship with their children that would make them more amenable to traditional religion and the associated moral beliefs. [Source: PI]

Hoge, Dean R., Cynthia L. Luna, and David K. Miller. 1981. "Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1979: A Return of the Fifties?" Sociology of Education vol. 54, pp. 263-274.
Abstract: Four identical surveys carried out in 1952, 1968-69, 1974, and 1979 among men at Dartmouth College and the University of Michigan depict value shifts in several areas. Privatism decreased from 1952 to 1968-69, then increased again in the late 1970s. Traditional religious beliefs were relatively weak in the 1960s but gained in the late 1970s although church attendance did not increase. Other-direction dropped from 1952 to the 1960s and changed little thereafter. Anxieties about deviant social groups dropped sharply during the late 1950s and remained low. Belief in free enterprise ideology was strong in 1952, weak in the 1960s, and slightly stronger again in 1979. Faith in the government and the military similarly fell during the 1960s but rose again in 1979. The changes in survey findings are not traceable to changes in student selection at the two colleges; they represent broader value shifts among college-going youth. In some respects there is the beginning of a return of the fifties, but not in areas involving personal freedoms, such as sexual behavior and life-style. The demand for increased personal freedoms, begun in the 1960s, continues to rise. [Source: JS]

Huffhines Kelly, Linda Diane. 1981. "Family of Origin and Differentiation of Self of Selected Catholic Women: A Case Study." Ed.D. Thesis, East Texas State University.
Abstract: Purpose of the Study. The purpose of this study was to identify certain collective characteristics and selected aspects of the original families of four Catholic nuns that might have been related to their choice of a vocation to the religious life. Also examined were each subject's differentiation of self from her family of origin and her sense of self as an autonomous person. Procedure. To pursue this investigation, the researcher conducted an extensive clinical interview with each of the four subjects in approximately six two-hour individual sessions. Upon completion of the clinical interview, each subject responded to the Whole Family Questionnaire, the Family Characteristics Inventory, and the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance (IPC) Scale. The researcher also interviewed one of each subject's siblings, who was willing to participate in this study as a consultant. Three of the four siblings also responded to the Whole Family Questionnaire and to the Family Characteristics Inventory. The taped interviews were transcribed, edited, and summarized thematically by the researcher. Data received from the Whole Family Questionnaire, the Family Characteristics Inventory, and the IPC Scale were analyzed and summarized. All data collected were reviewed by the researcher, who sought to understand the subjects and their families of origin from a family systems perspective. Findings. Distinct similarities and recurring patterns and themes were noted among the familes studied. The following findings apply to each subject and family that was studied for this research. (1) The father was dominant; he was the authority figure. (2) The mother was a submissive wife who assumed the "traditional" role of the woman. (3) The parents rarely praised the children. (4) Affection was not expressed outwardly in the home. (5) There was a special father-daughter bond. (6) The daughter had a symbiotic relationship with her mother. (7) Religion and religious practices were valued in the home. (8) Sex was not a topic for discussion in the home. (9) The subjects' heterosexual relationships were minimal. (10) Home life was routine, scheduled, and disciplined. (11) The socioeconomic level was of the low-middle or working class. (12) The primary value in the home was hard work. (13) Infant deaths occurred in the home. (14) Expiation of guilt was an unconscious motivating factor in the subjects' choice of a religious vocation. Conclusions. Because this study is idiographic in nature, with an N of four, and a goal to describe rather than to generalize, only one overall conclusion was drawn. The researcher believes, based on the findings of this study, that the family of origin has a perceivable influence on a woman's choice of a religious vocation. A clearer understanding of what motivates a woman to choose a vocation to the religious life was obtained by looking at career choice from the perspective of family systems theory. [Source: DA]

Kloepper, Howard W., Wilbert M. Leonard, and Lucy J. Huang. 1981. "A Comparison of the "Only Child" and the Siblings' Perceptions of Parental Norms and Sanctions." Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 641-655.
Abstract: Used a 77-item questionnaire to examine the extent to which 1,474 college students from one-child or multiple-child families perceived that they had been regulated during their last 2 yrs of high school by their parents. Specifically studied were the following behavioral variables: academic achievement, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, dating practices, driving privileges, athletic participation, money-saving and spending habits, movie attendance, and religious worship attendance. Cross-sectional analyses provided only weak support for the hypothesis that only-children would be granted more autonomy and would be less severely sanctioned by their parents than Ss with siblings. Findings demonstrate that regardless of family size, the majority of Ss had been given a great deal of freedom in the substantive areas investigated and were rarely parentally sanctioned with physical punishment and/or withdrawal of financial support. [Source: PI]

Mischey, Eugene J. 1981. "Faith, Identity, and Morality in Late Adolescence." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 9, pp. 175-185.
Abstract: 32 18-22 yr olds were interviewed regarding such issues as death, meaning-of-life, loyalties and commitments, evil, symbol, guilt, and shame. Tapes of the 2-hr interviews were rated by 2 judges for J. W. Fowler's (1977) "faithing" stage descriptions and 7 general variables. Ss were also given an identity rating and a score on a Kohlberg-type moral dilemmas questionnaire. Four groupings of Ss' faith statuses were delineated that arranged themselves from youngest to oldest. Faith stage, moral reasoning scores, and identity status were all highly correlated. Results support a progression of identity status and faith orientation followed by moral reasoning. Implications for religious education are discussed. [Source: PI]

Nelsen, Hart M. and Raymond H. Potvin. 1981. "Gender and Regional Differences in the Religiosity of Protestant Adolescents." Review of Religious Research vol. 22, pp. 268-285.
Abstract: Gender differences on religiosity by region & denomination are assessed by means of a 3-way analysis of variance. The data were collected in 1975 from a national questionnaire sample of adolescents (N = 1,121); the analysis is limited to Protestants grouped into churchlike, Baptist, & sectlike categories. Three measures of religiosity were employed: personal-experimental religiosity, religious practice, & fundamentalism. It was hypothesized that Fs would be more religious than Ms on the more personal dimension, but not on the more public or cultural measures (religious practice & fundamentalism). This gender difference was expected for churchlike youth in the non-South & South, & Baptist youth in the South. These expectations were fulfilled except that churchlike Fs in the South did not score significantly higher on the personal-experimental measure than did the Ms & in the South, Baptist Fs were more likely to engage in religious practice than Baptist Ms. These differences, as well as the interaction effect between sex & region in predicting fundamentalism, are discussed. The review of literature & the discussion relate gender differences in religiosity to regional & denominational variation in sex-role definition, as well as to parent-child interaction & the socialization process. [Source: SA]

Sigal, John, David August, and Joseph Beltempo. 1981. "Impact of Jewish Education on Jewish Identification in a Group of Adolescents." Jewish Social Studies vol. 43, pp. 229-236.
Abstract: It was hypothesized that the failure of other studies to demonstrate any impact of full-time Jewish education on Jewish identification over that provided by the home was due to the students' not yet having achieved a capacity to think abstractly. The impact of full-time Jewish education on Jewish identification in adolescence, when this capacity emerges, was examined by comparing the Jewish identification of two groups of students. Both had attended the same secular, Jewish elementary school to the end of grade 6. Subsequently one group attended a secular Jewish high school & the other regular high schools. In the Jewish elementary & high schools, approximately 50% of the day was devoted to Jewish studies. When the students were in grade 11, all were given two copies of the Brenner Jewish Identification Scale (JIS), one to be completed by them & one by their parents. Forty-three parent-student pairs from the Jewish high school & 30 from the other high schools returned the questionnaires, an overall return rate of 75%. In order to control for the impact of home environment, families were divided into high & low Jewish identification groups at the median of the total JIS score. Then they were matched within the high & low groups. Children of the parents in each of the groups were then compared on each of the separate JIS factors & on the total score, using a 2-way analysis of variance. Those students who came from families with a lower level of Jewish identification who attended the Jewish high school had higher scores on Positive Group Cultural (p less than .001), Positive Group National (p less than .001) factors, & on the total score for Jewish identification (p less than .01). Those from families with a higher level of Jewish identification who attended the Jewish school scored significantly lower on the Positive Group Religious factor (p less than .01). Regardless of the level of parental Jewish identification, public high school students scored significantly higher on the Combating Anti-Semitism factor (p less than .01). The first two sets of findings are attributed to the impact of the school, the last to difference in the respective school environments. All-day Jewish education can, therefore, have an impact, provided it is continued into adolescence, when the capacity to think abstractly & to conceptualize develops. [Source: SA]

Suziedelis, Antanas and Raymond H. Potvin. 1981. "Sex Differences in Factors Affecting Religiousness among Catholic Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 20, pp. 38-51.
Abstract: Three factorially derived aspects of religiousness--intrinsic, orthodoxy, practice--are examined with indices of sex-role identity and interpersonal style. The data were analyzed separately for boys (N=297) and girls (N=344) from several Catholic parochial schools. The result indicate that religiousness is related to sex-role definition in boys, but not in girls; conversely, interpersonal style is more predictive of religiousness in girls. [Source: RI]

Francis, Leslie. 1980. "The Young Person's Religion: A Crisis of Attitude?" Scottish Journal of Theology pp. 159-169.
Abstract: The paper presents a case for the study of attitudes toward religion among young people by means of professionally constructed attitude scales (psychometrics). The results of two studies are presented. Attention is drawn to: 1) the positive effect of Roman Catholic and the negative effect of Church of England primary schools on pupil attitudes, 2) the failure of new forms of agreed syllabus of religious education to influence attitudes more favourably than the old form, and 3) the problem of the alienation of young people from the churches. [Source: RI]

Fullerton, John T. 1980. "An Investigation of Christian Orthodoxy and Right-Wing Authoritarianism in a Collegiate Population." Thesis, University of Manitoba.

Hepburn, Lawrence R. 1980. "Adolescent Religious Attitudes." Pp. 111-116 in Growing Edges in the Psychology of Religion, edited by J. Tisdale. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Nelsen, Hart M. and Raymond H. Potvin. 1980. "Toward Disestablishment: New Patterns of Social Class, Denomination, and Religiosity among Youth?" Review of Religious Research vol. 22, pp. 137-154.
Abstract: In the past, mainline Protestant religious denominations profited from a positive relationship between SC & religiosity, mainly through church attendance. Recent studies suggest that affluent young adults with mainline denominated preferences display low levels of church involvement, suggesting a trend toward disestablishment or eventual weakening of the position of the mainline bodies. Employing a national questionnaire sample of Protestant adolescents (N = 499), a significant interaction is found between denomination & occupation in predicting the personal-experiential dimension of religiosity among non-Southerners. Furthermore, examination of the means on 3 dimensions of religiosity indicates that mainline, white-collar youths exhibit low levels of religiosity. Future research should examine these relationships over time, since the religious climate can change; future studies should also consider the processes by which disaffiliation or loss of interest in religion can occur. [Source: SA]

Ohara, J. P. 1980. "A Research Note on the Sources of Adult Church Commitment among Those Who Were Regular Attenders During Childhood." Review of Religious Research vol. 21, pp. 462-467.

Parker, Mitchell and Eugene L. Gaier. 1980. "Religion, Religious Beliefs, and Religious Practices among Conservative Jewish Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 15, pp. 361-374.
Abstract: Among 22 male and 24 female Jewish 13-27 yr olds, religion was defined in terms of observance. Ss completed a questionnaire composed of 3 scales: religious beliefs, religious practices, and parental practices. A trivariate step-wise multiple regression analysis showed the relationship between religious beliefs and religious practices to be linear. Only parental practices significantly accounted for any of the variance in the criteria variables, which also included Hebrew school attendance, youth group attendance, and sex. [Source: PI]

Rodman, Iris J. 1980. "A Comparison of Attitudes toward Religion, Ethnic Groups, and Racial Prejudice of High School Students in the American Cooperative School in La Paz, Bolivia, to Those High School Students in the Columbus High School in Columbus, Georgia." Thesis, University of Alabama.

Tremewan, Chris. 1980. "What Youth Are Saying over the Shouting." One World vol. 53, pp. 20-21.

Wiebe, Ken F. and J. Roland Fleck. 1980. "Personality Correlates of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Nonreligious Orientations." Journal of Psychology vol. 105, pp. 181-187.
Abstract: Personality profiles of 158 Canadian university freshmen were compared across religious orientation and religious affiliation. The Religious Orientation Inventory and the 16 PF were employed. It was hypothesized that the profiles of extrinsically religious and nonreligious Ss would correlate significantly with each other and that both would differ significantly from intrinsically religious Ss. Both hypotheses were supported. The personality variables for which the hypotheses were supported included superego strength, emotional sensitivity, and liberalism. Differences were also found across religious affiliation for certain personality variables. [Source: PI]

Young, Michael and Seldon Daniels. 1980. "Born Again Status as a Factor in Death Anxiety." Psychological Reports vol. 47, pp. 367-370.
Abstract: 320 rural high school students completed the Death Anxiety Scale. A 3-way ANOVA yielded significant main effects for race, sex, and born again status. Higher death anxiety was exhibited by Blacks, females, and non-Christians than by Whites, males, and Christians. [Source: PI]

Cremins, John J. 1979. "Perceptual Style and Religious Orientation as Indices of the Fear of Death in Junior High School Students." Thesis, St John's University.

Fleck, J. Roland. 1979. "Research on Adolescent Religiosity." Pp. 69-90 in Youth Education in the Church, edited by R. B. Zuck. Seoul, Korea: Word of Life Press.

Hoge, Dean R. and Gregory H. Petrillo. 1979. "Youth and the Church." Religious Education vol. 74, pp. 305-313.
Abstract: We interviewed 451 tenth graders (age 15 and 16) who are children of Catholics, Southern Baptists, and Methodists, to assess their church involvement and attitudes about the church plus the determinants of each. The principal determinants were parents' church attendance for their church attendance; peer pressures and types of leaders for their participation in youth groups and attitudes toward youth groups; and past religious education, types of leaders, and beliefs for their attitudes toward the church. In fostering church commitment among these youth, personal relationships have been foremost - relationships with parents, peers, and church leaders. The Baptist youth had the strongest church commitment due to several crucial denominational differences in religious socialization and family life. [Source: RI]

Raphael, Dennis. 1979. "Sequencing in Female Adolescents' Consideration of Occupational, Religious and Political Alternatives." Adolescence vol. 14, pp. 73-80.
Abstract: In 2 studies on how adolescent females deal with adolescent issues, it was observed that the 69 undergraduates (Study 1) and the 112 12th graders (Study 2) were not in the same identity status (J. E. Marcia's Identity Status Interview) for the areas of occupation, religion, and politics. It appeared that it was necessary for female adolescents to have explored alternative courses of action in the occupation area before they could consider possibilities in the religion area. The exploration of alternative beliefs and plans was necessary in the religion and occupation areas before alternatives could be explored in politics. Reanalyses of data from the 2 studies indicated that this scaling sequence was reliable. A suggestion of a horizontal decalage of successive applications of cognitive structures to these areas of concern is discussed within a Piagetian theoretical framework, as is the possibility that environmental variables determined areas of exploration. An attempted synthesis of these 2 viewpoints is presented. [Source: PI]

St. Clair, Sally and H. D. Day. 1979. "Ego Identity Status and Values among High School Females." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 8, pp. 317-326.
Abstract: To test the hypothesis that adolescent females who are high in ego identity have high interests in religious and political values, the relationship between the ego identity status (determined by the Identity Status Interview) of 80 high school females and their response to the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values was examined. Ss' identity in the achievement, moratorium, and foreclosure statuses had higher religious value scores than did those in the diffusion status; however, differences on political value scores were not found. Two-thirds of the identity achievers came from homes disrupted by divorce or death of 1 parent, while less than 20% of the members of the other 3 statuses came from broken homes. [Source: PI]

Zegans, Susan and Leonard S. Zegans. 1979. "Bar Mitzvah: A Rite for a Transitional Age." Psychoanalytic Review vol. 66, pp. 115-132.
Abstract: Examined the significance of the Jewish bar mitzvah ritual as experienced by 9 boys who participated in the ceremony, and studied the interaction of social and psychological factors that facilitated the maturational process. The bar mitzvah is one of the few surviving rites to mark the entrance into adolescence for a segment of the population, and it remains a ceremony that helps bind family and friends in a search for a meaningful symbolic reconciliation of the tensions between tradition and change. [Source: PI]

Bardis, Panos D. 1978. "The Borromean Family and the Influence of Religion." Journal of Comparative Family Studies vol. 9, pp. 231-241.
Abstract: According to the author's Borromean theory, pro-family trends are balanced by anti-family ones, with the former dominating. Data from 200 White students at 2 Catholic high schools indicate that (a) increasing age was accompanied by diminishing religiosity and increasing anti-family attitudes, (b) frequent church attendance was associated with high religiosity and pro-family scores, and (c) mothers' education influenced the offspring's family attitudes inconsistently, but the children of less educated women were more religious. [Source: PI]

Brink, T. L. 1978. "Inconsistency of Belief among Roman Catholic Girls: Concerning Religion, Astrology, Reincarnation." Review of Religious Research vol. 20, pp. 82-85.
Abstract: Religious attitudes of 227 junior and senior students at a Catholic girls high school are examined. Students who expressed a belief in astrology did not report religious attitudes which differed significantly from the other students. Those who expressed belief in reincarnation manifested only slight differences in attitudes. Students expressing a belief in astrology were more likely to express a belief in reincarnation. These results were held to be inconsistent with cognitive theories which stress the importance of attitude consistency. The author presents a functional perspective. Although these attitudes are structurally incompatible with each other, they serve similar functions for some adolescent girls: the provision of security in the face of confusion and uncertainty. [Source: RI]

Dudley, Roger L. 1978. "Alienation from Religion in Adolescents from Fundamentalist Religious Homes." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 17, pp. 389-398.
Abstract: Youth in fundamentalist religious homes sometimes reject the faith of their parents. What variables correlate with alienation from religion in adolescents? multiple regression analysis of 400 high school students indicated that alienation from religion in Seventh-day Adventist adolescents is correlated with the quality of their relationships with parents and other religious authority figures, especially as these relationships concern religious values. A strong relationship was also found between alienation and inconsistency between profession and practice reported by youth in the lives of their religious teachers. A moderate relationship was found between alienation and the concept of religion held by the adolescent. [Source: RI]

Hoge, Dean R. and Gregory H. Petrillo. 1978. "Determinants of Church Participation and Attitudes among High School Youth." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 17, pp. 359-379.
Abstract: We interviewed 451 (Catholic, Southern Baptist, and Methodist) tenth graders in three denominations. To identify determinants of church attendance, church youth group participation, attitudes toward the church, and attitudes toward church youth programs, predictor variables included family factors, peer group pressures, program and leadership factors, and beliefs. The principal determinants were parents' church attendance for church attendance; peer pressures and types of leaders for youth group participation and attitudes toward youth groups; and past religious education, types of leaders, and beliefs for overall attitudes toward the church. In fostering church commitment among the youth, personal relationships have been foremost, relationships with parents, peers, and church leaders. The Baptist youth had stronger church commitment and involvement than the others, a pattern explainable by denominational differences on several crucial determinants. [Source: RI]

Ostow, Mortimer. 1978. "The Psychologic Determinants of Jewish Identity." Pp. 311-333 in Perspectives on Jews and Judaism, edited by A. A. Chiel. New York: Rabbinical Assembly.

Wagner, Hilmar. 1978. "The Adolescent and His Religion." Adolescence vol. 13, pp. 349-364.
Abstract: Addresses adolescent attitudes, behavior, and conflicts related to religion and recommends ways to make religion applicable to adolescent needs. [Source: PI]

Cygnar, Thomas E., Cardell K. Jacobson, and Donald L. Noel. 1977. "Religiosity and Prejudice: An Interdimensional Analysis." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 16, pp. 183-191.
Abstract: Notes that the multidimensional nature of prejudice and religiosity suggests that contradictory relationships reported in the literature might stem from different operationalizations of either or both variables. Eight dimensions of religiosity and 4 of prejudice were measured with 307 White freshman and senior high school students to determine if the relationship varies as a function of the dimensions measured. Results indicate that ritual, knowledge, and orthodoxy dimensions of religiosity were not related to any dimension of prejudice. Fanaticism and importance, however, were negatively related to all 4 measures of prejudice. Consequential religiosity, by contrast, was positively correlated with all 4 measures. Results support the central hypothesis of this study, i.e., that the relationship between religiosity and prejudice varies with the dimension of religiosity measured, if not with the dimension of prejudice. [Source: PI]

Moore, Kathy and Sue Stoner. 1977. "Adolescent Self-Reports and Religiosity." Psychological Reports vol. 41, pp. 55-56.
Abstract: Administered the Brownfain Self-Rating Inventory and Religiosity Index to high school juniors, 46 males and 66 females. Correlations between scores on the 2 inventories were significant for males but not for females. Ss were divided into high and low groups on the Self-Rating Inventory (self-concept). The high group scores were .5 standard deviation above the mean and the low group scores were .5 standard deviation below. Mean differences on the Religiosity Index for the 2 groups were significant for males but not for females. Results suggest that male adolescents with positive self-reports score higher on religiosity than those with low self-reports, but not female adolescents. [Source: PI]

Nelsen, Hart M. and Raymond H. Potvin. 1977. "The Rural Church and Rural Religion: Analysis of Data from Children and Youth." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science vol. 429, pp. 103-114.
Abstract: Focus is on Ru-Ur differences in religiosity. Research done in the 1960's & 1970's indicated differences only on the ideological (belief) dimension. Data from 2 1975 studies -- one involving children in Minnesota, & the other adolescents in a national sample -- are reported, showing continuing Ru-Ur-metropolitan differences in religious belief. There are higher rates of fundamentalism for Protestants in the 1st 2 residential categories. For the 1st sample, the relationship between SES & fundamentalism virtually disappears in the Ru area. The importance of residential (& church) propinquity of SC is suggested as an important intervening variable, & this brings the focus full circle in terms of ecological vs structural & organizational characteristics. The future of the Ru (small) church is discussed, as are negative effects of inflation & the overall decline in national church membership & participation, & the positive effects of church decentralization as they impinge upon the Ru church. [Source: SA]

Nelsen, Hart M., Raymond H. Potvin, and Joseph A. Shields. 1977. The Religion of Children. Washington: Office of Research Policy and Program Development, Dept. of Education, U.S. Catholic Conference.

Peatling, John H. 1977. "Religious Thinking in Adolescence." Pp. 57-73 in Knowing and Helping Youth, edited by G. T. Sparkman. Nashville: Broadman Press.

Potvin, Raymond H. 1977. "Adolescent God Images." Review of Religious Research vol. 19, pp. 43-53.
Abstract: Data gathered in a 1975 national probability sample of 1,121 adolescents aged 13 to 18 were used in an attempt to discover the origin & nature of God images held during youth. Ss were classified according to age, sex, & God image. Responses of Ss believing in a personal God who both loves & punishes, a personal God who only loves, & nonbelievers were analyzed by means of discriminant function analysis with regard to six predictor variables: parental education, parental religious practice, parental affection, parental control, self-esteem, & years of religious education. Factors of parental religious practice & years of religious education were found significant in distinguishing between believers & nonbelievers, while factors of parental control & parental education distinguished those believing in a loving-nonpunishing God from the other two groups. The evidence supports current socialization & parental image projection theories of God image formation. Self-esteem, however, was found relevant only among older Fs. [Source: SA]

Savin Williams, Richard C. 1977. "Age and Sex Differences in the Adolescent Image of Jesus." Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 353-366.
Abstract: An open-ended questionnaire was administered to 274 adolescents between the ages of ten and sixteen attending one of two adjacent, sex-segregated youth camps in north central US. The questionnaire, intending to probe the ideological dimension of religiosity, asked the adolescent to write a paragraph on his/her personal image of Jesus, specifying aspects of his physical appearance, personality attributes, & role or function in the world. The completed questionnaires--blinded as to age & sex of Rs--were sorted by two judges into three categories: "spiritual," "human," & "doubt." Also, a detailed, word-by-word content analysis of the physical, personality, & functional attributes ascribed to Jesus was conducted. The data suggest that by the age of fifteen or sixteen there is an increase in those who express doubt in the traditional image of Jesus & that girls are slightly more devout & orthodox than are boys in their image of Jesus. This doubting, however, does not reflect a massive rejection of the traditional Jesus; he is still the same Jesus of the Biblical account to the surveyed adolescents. Results are discussed in light of traditional psychoanalytic theory of adolescence & recent empirical research. [Source: SA]

Soderstrom, Doug and E. Wayne Wright. 1977. "Religious Orientation and Meaning in Life." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 33, pp. 65-68.
Abstract: Tested the general hypothesis that a mature religious commitment should aid youth in their search for meaning in life. A questionnaire was given to 427 college freshmen and sophomores in 6 midwestern colleges. Results indicate that intrinsically motivated Ss, committed Ss, and true believers had significantly higher Purpose in Life Test mean scores than did extrinsically motivated Ss, uncommitted Ss, and unbelievers. The results also indicate that religious integration (moral commitment paired with spiritual commitment) is indicative of meaning in life. It is concluded that a mature religious commitment should aid youth in their search for meaning in life. [Source: PI]

Vener, Arthur M., Mary Margaret Zaenglein, and Cyrus Stewart. 1977. "Traditional Religious Orthodoxy, Respect for Authority and Nonconformity in Adolescence." Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 43-56.
Abstract: Previous studies of youth cultures have failed to account for impact of moral & religious beliefs on adolescent behavior. In Nov & Dec 1969, a pretested opinionnaire containing 190 forced-choice items was administered to 4,220 students in grades eight through twelve in three midwestern communities of differing SES. Traditional religious orthodoxy & respect for authority represent viable social forces. Beliefs dealing with respect for authority, which lack specificity in regard to the institutional locus of authority, remain substantially unchanged with increasing age. Several items concerning traditional religious orthodoxy & respect for authority either did not show a consistent decline with increasing age or showed only a slight decline. Commitment to these conventional beliefs is inversely associated with nonconforming behavior. [Source: SA]

Blum, Alan H. 1976. "Children's Conceptions of Death and an after-Life." Thesis, State University New York, Buffalo.

Cater, David A. 1976. "Personality and Demographic Correlates Associated with Conceptual Religious Thinking and Religious Orthodoxy in Children and Adolescents." Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary.

Chartier, Myron R. and Larry A. Goehner. 1976. "A Study of the Relationship of Parent-Adolescent Communication, Self-Esteem, and God Image." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 4, pp. 227-232.
Abstract: Studied 84 10th and 11th graders from a Christian high school. They were administered 3 tests to measure the relationships of parental communication, self-esteem, and God image: M. J. Bienvenu's Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and a 5-item differential extracted from P. Benson and B. Spilka's 13-item semantic differential developed for measuring loving and controlling God images. Significant relationships were found between parental communication and self-esteem, between self-esteem and God image, and between practical communication and the adolescents' image of God. [Source: PI]

Dickinson, George E. 1976. "Religious Practices of Adolescents in a Southern Community: 1964-1974." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 15, pp. 361-363.
Abstract: Religious practices of black & white adolescents in 10th, 11th, & 12th grades in a high school in a northeast Tex community were measured between 1964 & 1974 by the variables: f of church attendance, f of Bible reading, & grace at meals. Questionnaires were administered to 367 adolescents in 1964 & 432 in 1974. 3-way analysis by variance (race x time x sex) of the data shows adolescent religious involvement to be declining, especially with respect to M's. Differences in religious practices were greater for sex than they were for race in church attendance & Bible reading, but greater for race in the saying of grace at meals. [Source: SA]

Garrison, Charles E. 1976. "Effect of Participation in Congregational Structures on Church Attendance." Review of Religious Research vol. 18, pp. 36-43.
Abstract: The structure of congregations that college students attended prior to college is examined for effect upon church attendance rates while in college. Specifically, the division of labor in the congregation was measured as was also the extent to which the individual held positions in the division of labor. The findings reveal that the division of labor itself does not affect attendance rate. However, holding positions in the division of labor does have some effect on the attendance rate in college even when rate of high school church attendance is controlled. In comparing positions held in the division of labor with participation in church-sponsored youth activities, a greater effect on church attendance was derived from the holding of positions in the congregational division of labor. [Source: RI]

Levine, Saul V. and Nancy E. Salter. 1976. "Youth and Contemporary Religious Movements: Psychosocial Findings." Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal vol. 21, pp. 411-420.
Abstract: Studied 106 members of fringe religious groups, interviewing them at length (usually in Toronto) about their reasons for joining the group. Of the Ss, 55 were male, 51 female; median age was 21.5 yrs; most were middle-class. Most said that they joined the cult in a search for meaning in their lives. [Source: PI]

Potvin, Raymond H., Dean R. Hoge, and Hart M. Nelsen. 1976. Religion and American Youth, with Emphasis on Catholic Adolescents and Young Adults. Washington: Office of Research Policy and Program Development, U.S. Catholic Conference.

S"vigny, Robert. 1976. "The Religious Experience of Youth in Quebec." Pp. 485-496 in Religion in Canadian Society, edited by S. Crysdale and L. Wheatcroft. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.
Abstract: Abridged from Sociology Canada: readings, ed by Christopher Beattie and Stewart Crysdale, Toronto: Butterworth, 1974. Previously published as "La conception de l'exprience religieuse" in Sociologie et Soci"t"s, vol 1, no 1, May 1969, pp 7-21 [Source: RI]

Stewin, L. L. 1976. "Integrative Complexity: Structure and Correlates." Alberta Journal of Educational Research vol. 22, pp. 226-236.
Abstract: A battery of complexity tests and measures of proposed correlates of complexity was administered to 100 11th-grade students. Data reveal 5 factors which are interpreted as Intradimensional Discrimination, Indiscriminately Pro-Religious Response, Religious Rejection, External Dependence and Integrative Complexity. Although data lend some support to the model of integrative complexity as proposed by H. M. Schroder et al (1967), the findings are perhaps better illustrative of the present lack of well defined measures in this area. [Source: PI]

Batson, C. Daniel. 1975. "Rational Processing or Rationalization? The Effect of Disconfirming Information on a Stated Religious Belief." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 32, pp. 176-184.
Abstract: Cognitive dissonance theory assumes that man is a rationalizing animal, actively defending himself by means of distortion and denial against information which contradicts deeply held beliefs. In contrast, recent critiques of dissonance theory by D. J. Bem (1967) and others picture man as a rational, if fallible, information processor. A study is reported in which 50 adolescent female high school students were given a chance to commit themselves publicly to a religious belief and were then faced with information which seemed to disconfirm that belief. Consistent with dissonance interpretations of earlier field studies, Ss who both expressed belief and accepted the veracity of the disconfirming information subsequently expressed a significant increase in intensity of belief. This reaction was not found among Ss who either had not expressed initial belief or had not accepted the veracity of the disconfirming information. Possible limitations on the generality of these results are emphasized. [Source: PI]

Boyd, George N. 1975. "The Relation of Admission to the Eucharist to Confirmation." Pp. 83-100 in Trinity Univ Studies in Religion, Vol 10, edited by F. Garcia-Treto. San Antonio, Tex.: Dept. of Religion and Philosophy.

Captain, Philip A. 1975. "Effect of Positive Reinforcement on Comprehension, Attitudes, and Rate of Bible Reading in Adolescents." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 3, pp. 49-55.
Abstract: Twenty-seven students from a high school Sunday School department were randomly assigned to one of three groups, money reinforcement group, verbal reinforcement group, and control group. The purpose of this experimental procedure was to evaluate the effect of two different types of positive reinforcement upon the rate of daily Bible reading behaviors, personal attitudes related to those behaviors, and comprehension of what has been read in this sample of adolescents. The major finding of this study was the general effectiveness of money as a reinforcer for this group of adolescents. Money given as a reward for reading by the parents was able to significantly increase the Bible reading of the subjects as well as positive attitudes toward themselves in relation to their Bible reading. But, verbal praise given as a reward for reading by the parents had no significant effect on the rate of Bible reading or on the attitudes of the young people toward reading. One explanation is that verbal praise as a social reinforcer might be confounded during adolescence with the adolescent's movement toward establishing independence from his parents in a way that money as a reinforcer does not. [Source: RI]

Damrell, Joseph D. 1975. "Improvisational Youth Groups and the Search for Identity: A Study of an Urban Religious Sect in the Youth Culture." Religious Education vol. 70, pp. 438-439.

Heyer, Robert (ed.). 1975. Religious Life of the Adolescent. Mahwah: Paulist Press.

Leonhart, Joan S. 1975. "The Youth Religious Movement." M.A. Thesis, California State University Fullerton.

Lergessner, James G. 1975. "Youth Cultures and Youth Movements: Some Considerations of Their Relevance." Journal of Christian Education Papers vol. 52, pp. 58-61.

Montgomery, S.M. and R.L. Montgomery. 1975. "Religious Practice and Orthodoxy among Catholic Students as a Function of Parents' Beliefs and Religious Training." Psychological Reports vol. 37, p. 706.

Rogers, Martha L. 1975. "A Fundamentalist Church as an Autonomous Community and Its Relationship to the Larger Community." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 3, pp. 210-215.
Abstract: Suggested that a small fundamentalist church can be defined as an autonomous community meeting many of its own needs. A questionnaire was used to study intra-community relationships, goals, and interaction with the larger community. The hypothesis of autonomy with little exchange with the larger community was confirmed while their primary goal, identified as bringing others to Christ, was seen to be thwarted by separatism. An individual's role in the church was largely predictable by sex, age, and marital status. Adolescents' responses suggested that neither their needs for spiritual guidance nor their social needs were being adequately met. [Source: PI]

Whiteman, Raymond G. 1975. "Analysis of the Relationship between Selected Interpersonal and Institutional Variables and the Value Systems of Youth." Religious Education vol. 70, pp. 442-443.

Williams, Mavis L. 1975. "Children's Concepts of God and Self: Developmental Sequences." Thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

Zaenglein, Mary M., Arthur M. Vener, and Cyrus S. Stewart. 1975. "The Adolescent and His Religion: Beliefs in Transition, 1970-1973." Review of Religious Research vol. 17, pp. 51-60.
Abstract: A survey of orthodox beliefs of adolescent boys & girls between the ages of 13 & 17 in the same community over a 3 year period (1970-73) showed an overall increase in religiosity. The instrument used in the survey was a group-administered, pretested questionnaire. Despite the general decline in orthodoxy with increasing age, occasional upswings occur. Large numbers of conversions or defections are not apparent at any specific age level. The orthodox index consists of interrelated items which are not hierarchically arranged. Agreement with doctrinal items over the 3 year period increased, reflecting a resurgence in spiritualism. The convergence in responses of boys & girls to the orthodox items parallels similar findings in other attitudinal & behavioral areas. The orthodoxy index offers a basis upon which standardized instruments can be developed enabling scholars to more accurately ascertain trends in religious beliefs over time. [Source: SA]

Adler, Moshe. 1974. "Alienation and Jewish Jesus Freaks." Judaism vol. 23, pp. 287-297.

Coursey, Robert D. 1974. "Consulting and the Catholic Crisis." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol. 42, pp. 519-528.
Abstract: Conducted 3 studies to explore some of the dimensions of the present crisis facing the Catholic church. A scale was developed to assess the liberal-conservative nature of this conflict. Study 1, using Ss in both liberal and conservative parishes (N = 678), found that although a generalized liberal-conservative dimension exists, 6 factors emerged from factor analysis: Concerns with Authority, the Open-Closed Nature of the Catholic Community, Marriage Issues (e.g., birth control), Church Regulations, and Styles of Worship, and the Church's Involvement in Sociopolitical Issues. The liberal-conservative religious conflict appeared to function like other social attitudes in that conservatism was related to greater age and less education. Study 2 investigated the cognitive dimensions of the conflict among 486 9th and 12th graders. Liberal religious attitudes were associated with degree and amount of liberal religious education and with achievement, motivation, and intelligence within a liberal context. A strong cognitive component to the liberal-conservative conflict was thus established for younger populations. Study 3 compared 98 pairs of liberal and conservative subjects matched on sex, age, education, and income and still found profound differences on the liberal-conservative scale. [Source: PI]

Heyer, Robert J., (ed.). 1974. The Religious Life of the Adolescent. New York: Paulist Press.

Krishnan, L. 1974. "Attitude Structure and Change: An Experimental Study." Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient vol. 17, pp. 6-15.
Abstract: Measured attitudes toward religion (taken in the broadest sense). Included were valences of religious attitude, congruence-incongruence of attitude change, and sex differences in relation to these 2 factors. 3 hypotheses were tested. Ss were 110 16-22 yr old undergraduates, most of whom were Hindus. A Likert-type religious attitude scale was used. On the basis of scores obtained, Ss were classified into 6 valence groups. Results indicate that positivist males were significantly more likely to change than negativist males and that males and females were equally likely to change. [Source: PI]

Thompson, Andrew D. 1974. "Open-Mindedness and Indiscrimination Antireligious Orientation." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 13, pp. 471-477.
Abstract: G. W. Allport and J. M. Ross's Religious Orientation Scale has been widely criticized for lack of conceptual clarity. The present research employs the scoring technique devised by R. Hood (see record 1972-24774-001) which allows for the identification and measurement of 4 rather than 3 categories of religious orientation. The new 4th category is labeled "indiscriminate antireligious orientation." Data were collected from 532 adolescents (and their parents) attending Catholic parochial and Sunday schools. Using the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, analysis showed the indiscriminately antireligious to be the most open-minded of the 4 categories of religious orientation, and to be significantly more open-minded than the extrinsics and the indiscriminately proreligious. Caution is urged in interpreting Hood's procedure for scoring the Religious Orientation Scale, and questions are raised concerning the validity of the scale when used with Catholic Ss. [Source: PI]

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1974. "Secularization and Religiosity: A Cross-National Study of Catholic Adolescents in Five Societies." Sociological Analysis vol. 35, pp. 1-23.
Abstract: A discussion of a study testing the hyp that: The more Ur'ized & industr'ized the society & the lower the cultural importance of religion, the lower the degree of member's traditional religiosity, with the exception of religious knowledge which is expected to be higher. Data were obtained from 12 purposive samples of 1,071 M & 94 F adolescents, Mc & Catholic, attending HSch's in each of 6 cities: Bonn, Germany; New York; St. Paul, Minn.; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Merida, Yucatan; & Seville, Spain. 5 dimensions of religiosity measured were: (1) traditional belief, (2) religious experience, (3) religious practice, (4) religious knowledge, & (5) religious consequences. Results tend to corroborate secularization theorizing, but with important diff's, eg, on the belief & practice dimensions if compared with adult samples, & the knowledge & experience dimensions if compared with the a priori continuum. Alongside cross-nat'l variations in the degree of religiosity, a consistent ranking of the associations between pairs of dimensions suggests a similar structure with belief as the keystone within individual religiosity across societies. In light of the similar structure, the weakening of traditional belief in the more modernized societies presages powerful changes in the entire configuration of traditional individual religiosity within Catholicism. [Source: SA]

Benson, Peter and Bernard Spilka. 1973. "God Image as a Function of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 12, pp. 297-310.
Abstract: Predicted that a believer's level of self-esteem and his degree of locus of control will influence his description and definition of God. 23 items selected from S. Coopersmith's 1967 list of 50 items measuring self-esteem and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale were administered to 128 male Catholic high school students. Self-esteem was positively related to loving, accepting God images and negatively related to rejecting images. Locus of control was unrelated to controlling beliefs. It is suggested that self-esteem may be a major determinant of God images and that results have important implications for studying the dynamics of personal religion. [Source: PI]

Currie, Raymond Francis. 1973. "Religion and Images of Man among Calgary Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University.

D'Abreo, Desmond A. 1973. "Youth and Faith." Afer vol. 15, pp. 206-217.

Gecas, Victor, Darwin L. Thomas, and Andrew J. Weigert. 1973. "Social Identities in Anglo and Latin Adolescents." Social Forces vol. 51, pp. 477-484.
Abstract: Examined social identities, conceptualized as self-designations and measured by the Twenty Statement Test, for samples of high school adolescents in 3 societies: the United States, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 4 identities (IDs) were explored in terms of salience, frequency, and valence: gender, religion, family, and peer. For both males and females in Latin and Anglo cultures gender emerged as the most prominent ID. Religious IDs were more frequent for Catholic adolescents. The strongest cultural difference was found with respect to negative religious IDs: these were significantly more frequent for Anglo adolescents. Positive gender and family IDs were more frequent for Latin adolescents, while peer IDs were slightly more common self-designations for Anglos. These tendencies were generally in the expected direction. Social and cultural differences between the Anglo and Latin societies were considered as explanations for variations in adolescent ID structures. (20 ref.) [Source: PI]

Henry, Carl F. H., et al. 1973. Quest for Reality: Christianity and the Counter Culture. Downers Grove Ill: Inter-Varsity Pr.
Abstract: Some clinical sketches of the youth culture, A M Nicholi. Selfhood and the protests of youth, J Daane. The loss and recovery of the personal, J M Houston. The self and the community, D E Trueblood. A hard look at the church, D Carley. The failure of a religious subculture, D D Feaver. Marcuse, Reich and the rational, R H Nash. Reason and historical reality, A F Holmes. The counter culture: a flight toward reality?, G I Mavrodes. The Christian view of work, J Scanzoni. The Christian view of work: some implications, V E Anderson. Christian perspectives on work and leisure, D O Moberg. Some aspects of the counter culture, J W Snyder. The secular prophets and the Christian faith, C H Pinnock. The thrust of the counter culture, M Westphal. The search for reality, C D Linton. What is man on earth for?, C F H Henry. [Source: RI]

Lorimier, Jacques de, Roger Graveline, and Aubert April. 1973. Identity and Faith in Young Adults. New York: Paulist Press.

Shea, F. X. 1973. "Reason and the Religion of the Counter-Culture." Harvard Theological Review vol. 66, pp. 95-111.

Thompson, Donald D. 1973. "A Study of the Relationship of Rokeach's Dogmatism with the Religious Orientation and Religious Orthodoxy of Catholic High School Students and Their Parents." Thesis, Catholic University of America.

Whiteman, Raymond Gerard. 1973. "An Analysis of the Relationship between Selected Interpersonal and Institutional Variables and the Values Systems of Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Notre Dame.

Dache, Marguerite. 1972. "The Lord's Apparitions and the Resurrection: Research into the Attitudes of Adolescent Girls Receiving Religious Instruction." Pp. 181-188 in Death and Presence, edited by A. Godin. Brussels, Lumen: Vitae Press.

Fredrickson, L. C. 1972. "Value Structure of College Students." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 1, pp. 155-163.
Abstract: An investigation of value orientations & perceived value sources in 4 domains: fam, educ, ethical situations, & religious beliefs. What was sought was (1) the nature of student att's toward specific value situations, & (2) student perception of the relative amount of influence of various soc agencies in shaping values. The sample consisted of undergraduates enrolled in classes in educ'al psychol at the U of Iowa, & freshman & senior students living in residence halls at Coe Coll. 415 students participated in the project, 312 men & 283 women. In general, the results did not support the findings of a "degeneration of values in a majority of Coll students" reported in previous published res. That is, students seem to still recognize the importance of fam, educ, & religion. In fact, the findings do support recent res which indicates that Coll students have a high positive identification with their fam's (ie, esp with parental values). [Source: SA]

Friedman, Samuel R. and John E. Pierce. 1972. "Religion and the American Youth Movement." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).

Gobuyan, Cordelia Alasa. 1972. "A Study of the Relationship between the Economic Status of Certain Youth and Adults and Their Belief in a Benevolent God." Ph.D. Thesis, The American University.

Jacks, Irving. 1972. "Religious Affiliation and Educational, Political and Religious Values of College Freshmen and Sophomores." Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 95-120.
Abstract: An inventory covering educ'al, pol'al & religious values & att's was admin'ed to 337 freshmen & sophomores at the Ogontz Campus of Pennsylvania State U. Responses of 4 subgroups--Protestant, Roman Catholic-parochial Sch, Roman Catholic-public Sch, & Jewish--were compared. Intergroup similarities far exceeded divergences. Coll educ was perceived as most relevent to civic & vocational area of life, least to primary interpersonal relationships. Little change in religious or pol'al outlook was acknowledged, although some tendency to pol'al liberalization was suggested. Protestants resemble most closely the total group norm. There was a noticeable diff in att's & values between the 2 Catholic subgroups, related to whether they had gone to public or parochial secondary Sch's. Jews were most occup'ly oriented, most liberal pol'ly, most rejecting of formal religion, but most adhering to their own religious affiliation. [Source: SA]

Luz, Ehud. 1972. "Between Necessity and Will--Kibbutz Youth Discuss Their Jewishness." Immanuel vol. 1, pp. 95-95.

Mader, Paul Douglas. 1972. "Residential Background and Religious Socialization: An Examination of College Students' Beliefs and Practices." Paper presented at Rural Sociological Society (RSS).

Rackover, Sam S., Yoel Yanon, and Rivka Arad. 1972. "Religious Observance among Girl Pupils in Religious Schools." Immanuel vol. 1, pp. 85-87.

Robbins, Thomas and Dick Anthony. 1972. "Getting Straight with Meher Baba: A Study of Mysticism, Drug Rehabilitation and Postadolescent Role Conflict." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 11, pp. 122-140.

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1972. "Parental Support, Control and Adolescent Religiosity: An Extension of Previous Research." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 11, pp. 389-393.
Abstract: Investigated previous empirical findings that parental control and support are jointly related to religiosity among urban Catholic adolescents. A questionnaire administered to the entire population of 12-18 yr. old Mormons (N = 44) in a small, western United States university town yielded similar results. [Source: PI]

Beard, Roger Stanton. 1971. "A Study of Decisions for Church-Related Vocations Made in Selected Youth Camps Related to the Christian Churches from 1960-1970." D.R.E. Thesis, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville.

Hampe, Gary D. 1971. "Interfaith Dating: Religion, Social Class and Premarital Sexual Attitudes." Sociological Analysis vol. 32, pp. 97-106.

Hepburn, Lawrence R. 1971. "Religion in the Social Studies: The Question of Religious Attitudes." Religious Education vol. 66, pp. 172-179.
Abstract: Systematic information concerning adolescents' views towards religion is very limited, though at least 1 study reported as early as 1900 perceptively related the general nature of adolescence to an undefined sense of incompleteness. Religious interest ranks high among adolescent students but is not nearly so marked among nonstudent peers. Conflict between literal religious teachings and scientific views of the world appears to be implicated in adolescent student concern over religion. Since commitment has many dimensions, it poses measurement difficulties. Some investigators define dimensions of religion as belief, practice, experience, knowledge, and consequence or effect in everyday life. Development of valid approaches to the academic study of religion can provide expanded educational opportunities since religion elicits attitudinal responses from people whether or not they are "religious." [Source: PI]

Lederach, Paul M. 1971. Mennonite Youth: Report of Mennonite Youth Research. Scottdale, PA.: Herald Press.

Schreiber, Barry. 1971. "Youth and the Irrelevance of the Church." Reformed Review vol. 24, pp. 110-112.

Appleyard, Robert B., Arthur S. O'Brien, and John Hardwick. 1970. "Religious Attitudes of Youth." Pp. 139-147 in Today's Youth and Moral Values, edited by J. Douglas. New York : Academy of Religion and Mental Health: Academy of Religion and Mental Health.

Barron, Frank and Harben B. Young. 1970. "Rome and Boston: A Tale of Two Cities and Their Differing Impact on the Creativity and Personal Philosophy of Southern Italian Immigrants." Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology vol. 1, pp. 91-114.
Abstract: Various psychological tests and questionnaires were administered to 95 Boston adolescents whose grandparents had migrated from Southern Italy around 1900 and 125 similar adolescents in Rome. The Boston Ss were found to be more religiously orthodox and socially conservative. The Rome group was also higher in ideational fluency, originality, and flexibility, though not in intelligence. [Source: PI]

Cohen, Joseph Isadore. 1970. "Group Membership and a Belief System: A Study of the Relationship between Membership in a National Jewish Religious Youth Organization and the Religious Attitudes of Its Membership." Ed.D. Thesis, New York University.

Friedman, Maurice, Wesner Fallow, Anna Kollheim, Josephine H. Kyles, Marcus Priester, A. James Rudin, Annette Walters, and Dorothea K. Wolcott. 1970. "Youth Alienation from and Protest against the Establishment and Middle Class Culture Including Church and Synagogue." Religious Education vol. 65, pp. 165-170.

Fung, Raymond. 1970. "Impresssions of the Religious Attitudes of Young Industrial Workers." Ching Feng pp. 25-33.

Hendrix, John Dillard. 1970. "An Examination of Adolescent Religious Crises in Relationship to the Church." Ph.D. Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.

Light, Harriett K. 1970. "Attitudes of Rural and Urban Adolescent Girls toward Selected Concepts." Family Coordinator vol. 19, pp. 225-227.
Abstract: Examined the attitudes of 164 rural and 161 urban adolescent girls toward family, religion, peer groups, premarital sex, ethnic prejudice, morality, and education. Ss were matched on age (16-17 yr. old), grade in high school (juniors-seniors) and socioeconomic status (middle class). Each S was given a questionnaire consisting of 45 statements with 5 choices for responding to each. Data were analyzed using chi-square. Results show highly significant differences between rural/urban girls toward family, religion, morality, premarital sex, and education: (a) family and religion are more likely to influence attitudes of rural than urban girls; (b) rural girls continue to accept conventional ethical standards, urban girls are more receptive to new morality; and (c) rural girls place greater value on education than do urban girls. [Source: PI]

Mahoney, Robert Joseph. 1970. "Mid-American Catholic Youth: Secular or Sacred?" Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia.

Woods, Ray T. and Gerald L. Klever. 1970. The World of Youth: A Study of High School Youth. Philadelphia: Board of Christian Education of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.

Ash, Roberta T. 1969. "Jewish Adolescents' Attitudes toward Religion and Ethnicity." Adolescence vol. 4, pp. 245-282.
Abstract: "Faith in knowledge applied to human progress and potentially springing from any human being is the central tenet of the Ss' sense of Jewishness; despite their claim that Jewish identity is based on religion, it seems really to be based on the belief in a universal contribution (humanistic, applied, rational and meliorative knowledge) made by a unique and persecuted people." [Source: PI]

Bahador, Darius and Addison W. Somerville. 1969. "Youth at the Crossroads: A Comparison of American and Iranian Adolescence." Adolescence vol. 4, pp. 1-18.
Abstract: The most conspicuous differences between American and Iranian cultures are due to the more rigid religious traditions in Iran . . . . Prohibited heterosexual relationship before marriage, class differences, financial barriers, scarcity of universities and job opportunities, are the main sources of frustration for Iranian adolescents . . . . The Iranian adolescent has the advantage of having learned greater self-discipline, and having a firmer relationship with his parents and family members on whom he can rely when in need. [Source: PI]

Benson, Dennis C. 1969. The Now Generation. Richmond,: John Knox Press.

Conley, William H. 1969. "Do Adolescents Have Faith?" Catholic School Journal vol. 69, p. 10.
Abstract: Summarizes questionnaire results from 1300 diocesan high school seniors. The detailed questionnaire sought "accurate, comprehensive, and current" information on the students in 2 areas: selected characteristics of families, and certain attitudes and behavior attitudes toward matters pertaining to religion. Findings indicate the "majority of the students are the oldest and 2nd oldest sons and daughters of middle class and upper socioeconomic levels." Almost 75% of the students noted omission of important subjects from a religion course, and indicated a desire for greater knowledge. [Source: PI]

DeBord, Larry W. 1969. "Adolescent Religious Participation: An Examination of Sib-Structure and Church Attendance." Adolescence vol. 4, pp. 557-570.
Abstract: Studied adolescent church attendance in relation to sib-structure, age, and intropunitiveness. [Source: PI]

Heath, Douglas H. 1969. "Secularization and Maturity of Religious Beliefs." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 8, pp. 335-358.
Abstract: An unexpected finding in the course of a study of how entering freshmen of 1 college had changed characterologically since 1948, was data suggesting "that the secularization of religious beliefs and practices is occurring, as Cox asserts, but that such secularization is not necessarily accompanied by an increased maturity, as Greeley might assert." It is concluded "that because Cox's assumptions about secular man are only partially valid psychologically, the implication that secularization necessarily leads to maturity confuses more than it clarifies our understanding of their relationship." Included in the data was information derived from a measure of religiousness which was developed from the MMPI and the Study of Values. Based on the analysis of this sample, it is proposed that "(a) Young persons of the 60s are less religiously orthodox but not less religiously philosophical than their counterparts of the 50s. (b) Youths of the 60s are not more mature or better adjusted than those of the 50s . . . . (c) The psychological significance of religious orthodoxy in the 50s differs from that of the 60s . . . . (d) Generally, extreme religio-philosophical interest in the 17 yr. old tends to be associated with immaturity . . . ." [Source: PI]

Meehan, Francis X. 1969. "Sunday Mass and the High School Student, 1969." Dimension vol. 1, pp. 147-154.

Stewart, Charles W. 1969. Adolescent Religion. New York: Abingdon Press.

Vergote, A. 1969. "Concept of God and Parental Images." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 8, pp. 79-87.

Yates, Jere E. 1969. "Erikson's Study of the Identity Crisis in Adolescence and Its Implications for Religious Education." Thesis, Boston University Graduate School.

Branson, Helen Kitchen. 1968. "In Church Every Sunday." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 10-11.

Bray, Mary. 1968. "Image of the Church in the Mind of Young People." London Quarterly and Holborn Review vol. 193, pp. 16-22.

Neidhart, Walter. 1968. "What the Bible Means to Children and Adolescents." Religious Education vol. 63, pp. 112-119.
Abstract: Since children love to hear stories, they find Bible stories naturally interesting. Such stories, which already have a sound psychological basis, can also convey deep theological truths provided the story's imagery is understood. Relevance of the Bible will differ from the Odyssey and Ivanhoe only if students see as living witnesses the teachers who pass on the texts. [Source: PI] [Source: PI]

Sanua, Victor D. 1968. "The Jewish Adolescent: A Review of Empirical Research." Jewish Education vol. 38, pp. 36-52.
Abstract: Research on the Jewish adolescent in the past 35 yr. is critically examined. Papers discussed are classified under the following headings: (1) Jewish identification (2) values and attitudes, (3) Hebrew education and religious practices, (4) psychological studies, and (5) deviancies among Jewish adolescents. Recommendations for future research are provided. [Source: PI]

Schab, Fred. 1968. "Adolescence in the South: A Comparison of White and Negro Attitudes About Home, School, Religion, and Morality." Adolescence vol. 3, pp. 33-38.
Abstract: Responses to a questionnaire given 1000 White and Negro high school students revealed many areas of differences, reflecting continuing differences in education, social, and economic factors. [Source: PI]

Smith, Leona J. 1968. "A Report of Four 1965 Youth Congress Delegates and Their Use of Concepts, Both During the Youth Congress and the Year Following the Congress." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 4, pp. 69-72.
Abstract: 4 delegates' data were analyzed to discover how much 6 concepts studied during Youth Congress had carried over into the youth's lives during the following yr. A totaling of the frequency of the concepts' use following the Congress indicated that the destiny concept was used most frequently, positive use of culture was 2nd, while delegates' use of unique learning patterns, and their positive use of home resources were closely tied for 3rd and 4th place. The delegates' use of ways they differed from the peer group, and their religious convictions, were in 5th and 6th place. Each youth's own uniqueness emerged stronger than similarities among the 4 case studies. Knowledge gained from the Congress helped them to integrate elements in their personalities toward purposive behavior. [Source: PI]

Zuck, Roy B. and Gene A. Getz. 1968. Christian Youth, an in-Depth Study; Profiles of 3,000 Teenagers and Their Morals, Values, Doubts, Religious Practices, Social Characteristics, Evaluations of Themselves, Their Families, Their Churches. Chicago: Moody Press.

Bealer, Robert C. and Fern K. Willets. 1967. "The Religious Interests of American High School Youth: A Survey of Recent Research." Religious Education vol. 62, pp. 435-444, 464.
Abstract: Research summary on religious committment, arranged according to Glock and Stark's 5 dimensions: ritualistic, experiential, ideological, intellectual, and consequential. Limitations of research presently available make evaluations of religious trends problematic. Judging from available research, the best label applicable to teen-agers' religious orientation is "hedging" since many manifest neither nihilism nor commitment. Firm conclusions concerning religious committment necessitate further research. [Source: PI] [Source: PI]

Eister, Allan W. 1967. "Brief Survey Report on Youth and Religion in the United States." Archives de Sociologie des Religions vol. 12, pp. 103-106.

Jacks, Irving. 1967. "Attitudes of College Freshmen and Sophomores toward Interfaith Marriage." Adolescence vol. 2, pp. 183-209.
Abstract: Protestant students were more broadly accepting of marriage to either Catholics or Jews than were students of the latter religions. Jewish students, especially females, were least accepting of interfaith marriages for themselves. [Source: PI] [Source: PI]

Pacella, Bernard L. 1967. "Morals, Ethics, and Religion." New York State Journal of Medicine vol. 67, pp. 1975-1979.
Abstract: ANALYZES THE CHARACTER OF THE ADOLESCENT IN TERMS OF MORALS, ETHICS, AND RELIGION. THE ADOLESCENT'S ATTITUDES TOWARD SOCIETY, HIS VIEW OF MORALITY, AND HIS NEED FOR RECOGNITION AND ACCEPTANCE ARE DESCRIBED AS WELL AS HIS NEED FOR PARENTAL, RELIGIOUS, AND SOCIETAL GUIDELINES. A DEFINITION OF HIS VALUE SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE WORLD HE LIVES IN IS STRESSED. [Source: PI]

Stewart, Charles William. 1967. Adolescent Religion; a Developmental Study of the Religion of Youth. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Taylor, Bob R. 1967. "A Study to Determine and Evaluate the Concepts toward Selected Leadership Principles Held by Youth Active in Southern Baptist Churches." Ph.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Williams, Robert L. 1967. "Psychological Efficacy of Religiosity in Late Adolescence." Psychological Reports vol. 20, p. 926.

Augsburger, A. Don. 1965. "Control Patterns and the Behavior of Mennonite Youth." Mennonite Quarterly Review vol. 39, pp. 192-203.

Dougherty, Denis. 1965. "Normative Value Differences between Public and Parochial School Adolescents." Sociological Analysis vol. 26, pp. 96-109.

Johnson, Roger Sherwood. 1965. "Conscience and the Adolescent: A Psychological and Religious Approach." Th.D. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont, Claremont.

Northrup, Jean and Arline Brown. 1965. "Junior High Youths' Ability to Help Someone Learn a Concept of Vicarious Sacrifice." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 3, pp. 57-59.
Abstract: ATTEMPTED TO DETERMINE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN "REALISTIC-IDEALISTIC" SELF-ANALYSIS AND THE ABILITY TO HELP OTHERS APPLY A PRINCIPLE OF VICARIOUS SACRIFICE. THE RESULTS WERE SIGNIFICANT AT THE 10% LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE, BUT THE NEED TO EXPLORE THE HYPOTHESIS FURTHER IS EXPRESSED AS FINDINGS WERE INCONCLUSIVE. [Source: PI]

Sanua, Victor D. 1965. "A Study of Attitudes of Adolescents Attending Jewish Community Centers in New York." Journal of Jewish Communal Service pp. 402-417.
Abstract: A report on the responses of approximately 180 Jewish adolescents, male and female, who are members of a Jewish center affiliated with the Associated YM-YWHAs of Greater New York. [Source: PI]

Bailey, Frances E. 1964. "Youth's Response to the Bible." Religious Education vol. 59, pp. 214-249.
Abstract: Exploration by essays and objective tests of the ability of a sample of youth to understand and apply biblical teaching to their own lives. [Source: PI]

Sanua, Victor D. 1964. "The Relationship between Jewish Education and Jewish Identification." Jewish Education pp. 1-14.
Abstract: Reviews a number of studies which have attempted to determine the effects of religious education on Jewish identification. 1 of the greatest problems confronted by studies attempting to measure such effects, is the difficulty of defining Jewish identification. Findings are reported on the Jewish Anti-Semitic Scale, the F-Scale and the Jewish Authoritarian Scale which were administered to approximately 180 adolescents, boys and girls, attending 6 Jewish Community Centers, some having received extensive religious education and others with little or no religious education. No relationship was found between the extensiveness of religious education and the respondents' Jewish identification among the more traditional Jewish denominations such as Orthodox Jews. No relationship was found between respondent's socioeconomic background and the extensiveness of his religiosity. Girls were found to be more positive towards the need for religious education and had enjoyed their education in this area to a greater extent than the boys. [Source: PI]

Scholl, Mason E. and Jerome Beker. 1964. "A Comparison of the Religious Beliefs of Delinquent and Nondelinquent Protestant Adolescent Boys." Religious Education vol. 59, pp. 250-253.
Abstract: Questionnaire study to compare religious beliefs of institutionalized Protestant delinquents with a group of "normal" Protestant adolescents. [Source: PI]

Burkhardt, Edward C. 1963. "Characteristics of High School Religion." Worship vol. 37, pp. 605-611.

Hill, Jean. 1963. "Some Teen-Age Views on the Church." Student World pp. 312-319.

Blumenfeld, W. S., R. D. Franklin, and H. H. Remmers. 1962. "Teenagers' Attitudes toward Study Habits, Vocational Plans, Religious Beliefs, and Luck." Purdue Oppinion Panel Poll Report vol. 22, p. 11.
Abstract: "This report presents the results of the initial poll of the 1962-1963 school year. The questionnaire was administered to approximately 8000 high school students . . . . When asked as to their main reason for studying outside of school, the majority (62%) of the panel said to improve grades. Another 23% gave career preparation as their primary motive. Such responses were most common among the non-believers in luck." Vocational plans tend to be in the direction of more college planning. "More than 1/2 of the panel (57%) have tried to get career information from a school source such as the library or the guidance counselor. This group appears to be non-luck-oriented." Approximately 38% of youth agree that religious faith is better than logic for solving life's important problems, 68% agree that fate in the here-after depends on present behavior, 84% agree that God knows every thought and movement, 59% agree that God controls everything, and 25% believe that their prayers are answered. The luck-oriented group believes that a great deal of what happens is beyond their control, and the "non-luck" group believes that one can control personally a great deal of what happens. [Source: PI]

Elkind, David and Sally Elkind. 1962. "Varieties of Religious Experience in Young Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 2, pp. 102-112.

Kosa, John, Leo D. Rachiele, and Cyril O. Schommer. 1962. "Marriage, Career and Religiousness among Catholic College Girls." Marriage and Family Living vol. 24, pp. 376-380.

Loomis, Irven Lyle. 1962. "A Comparison of the Religious Views of High School, College Age, and Adult Leaders of Methodist Youth." Ed.D. Thesis, Wayne State University, Detroit.

Portnoy, Joseph Leon. 1962. "An Analysis of Reform Jewish Youth Participation in Jewish Activities in the Northern California Council Region." Ed.D. Thesis, New York University.

Reid, Clyde H. 1962. "Where, Oh, Where Have Our Senior Highs Gone?" International Journal of Religious Education vol. 39, pp. 14-16.

Beekman, A. J. 1961. "Youth and Religion in a Changing World." Social Compass vol. 8, pp. 447-467.

Greeley, Andrew M. 1961. Strangers in the House; Catholic Youth in America. New York,: Sheed & Ward.

Kirkland, William. 1961. "The Gospel and the Off-Beat Generation." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 37, pp. 4-6.

Spoerl, Dorothy T. 1961. "The Values of Unitarian-Universalist Youth." Journal of Psychology vol. 51, pp. 421-437.
Abstract: An investigation into the value systems of 1077 Unitarian-Universalist youth from all sections of country. A consistent "liberal pattern" high on theoretical, aesthetic, and social values and low on religious values emerged and was unaffected by denomination, sex, year in school, geographic location, or social status. [Source: PI]

Holcomb, Elaine. 1960. "What Are Teen-Agers Like?" International Journal of Religious Education vol. 36, pp. 20-22.

Shanor, Clarence Richard. 1958. "Characteristics Related to the Reputed Practice of Vicarious Sacrifice by Certain Ninth Grade Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University Graduate School, Boston.

Strunk, O., Jr. 1958. "Relationship between Self-Reports and Adolescent Religiosity." Psychological Reports vol. 4, pp. 683-686.
Abstract: "136 high school students were given a modified form of the Brownfain Self-Rating Inventory and the Religiosity Index . . . . A significant difference in religiosity was found between the high and low self-report scorers [on the Brownfain Self-Rating Inventory], those adolescents with a relatively affirmative self-report tending to score higher on religiosity than the less affirmative self-report scorers. r = .32 between self-reports and religiosity scores . . . . Since these relationships appear to contradict results of some classical studies in the psychology of religion, and interest in understanding the significance of value schemata in the formation of the self-concept is growing, further research in the psychology of religion is urged." [Source: PI]

Ziegler, Mary Eugenia. 1958. "A Comparative Study of the Problems, Personality Adjustments, and Values of Catholic Adolescent Girls Attending Two Types of Secondary Schools." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University.

Staurides, Basileios T. 1956. "Orthodox Youth and the Ecumenical Movement." Greek Orthodox Theological Review pp. 81-88.

Kagan, Henry Enoch. 1952. Changing the Attitude of Christian toward Jew; a Psychological Approach through Religion. NY: Columbia University Press.
Abstract: Three methods of interfaith education were tried in 5 day summer church camps. Average age was 16. A group of 357 that received no training served as controls. The indirect method of teaching Jewish origins and contributions to Christianity did not increase prejudice; neither did it reduce it. A second method, called focused private interview, employed the indirect class method with the addition of a half hour interview in which the adolescent was encouraged to relate his experiences with Jews. The direct method, in which personal experiences and attitudes were discussed as a regular part of the class teaching was the most effective, and the changes in attitudes were the most permanent as measured 8 months later. 68-item bibliography. [Source: PI]

Myers, M. S. 1951. "The Role of Certain Religious Values for High School Youth." Studies in Higher Education, Purdue University pp. 79-85.
Abstract: The samples in this study were drawn from a national survey of 8,000 high school students. Comparisons are made of superstitious and non-superstitious respondents and of religiously and secularly oriented students. Socioeconomic status, educational level of parents, and replies on factual knowledge questions were found to be lower for the superstitious and orthodox groups than for the non-superstitious and secular groups. Religious orientation influenced the selection of academic courses. "The typical high school student has a favorable attitude toward the church, attends services about once a week, and says prayers once or twice a day." [Source: PI]

Remmers, H. H., M. S. Myers, and E. M. Bennett. 1951. "Some Personality Aspects and Religious Values of High School Youth." Purdue Opinion Panel vol. 10, p. 30.
Abstract: A sample of 2500 replies from a nationwide poll of high school students shows that the typical teen-age student has a favorable attitude toward the church, says prayers once or twice a day, thinks of God as an omnipotent and omniscient bodyless spirit existing everywhere, who guided the writing of the Bible and helps man in the building of a good society. He is ready to admit that study of certain sciences may alter his beliefs, that one may question his religious beliefs and often be perplexed by the confusion of opinions. Differences are noted between sex, grade, rural-urban and geographical location, religious denomination, low vs. high income, and mothers' education. [Source: PI]

Ross, Murray G. 1950a. "The Religious Beliefs of Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York.

Ross, Murray G. 1950b. Religious Beliefs of Youth: A Study and Analysis of the Structure and Function of the Religious Beliefs of Young Adults, Based on a Questionnaire Sample of 1,935 Youth and Intensive Interviews with 100 Young People. New York: Association Press.

Gilkey, Charles W. 1949. "Religion in Our College Generations." Christianity and Crisis pp. 147-150.

Hollingshead, August B. 1949. Elmstown's Youth; the Impact of Social Classes on Adolescents. NY: Wiley.
Abstract: The impact of the social system of a mid-western community on its adolescents' social behavior is analyzed through a description of the relationships of 735 boys and girls both in and out of high school. The major areas examined are school, job, church, recreation, cliques, dates, and sex as seen through field study in 1941-42. Statistical and verbatim materials are interwoven in presenting the results of interview and observation methods. Major findings are (1) an affirmation of the hypothesis that social behavior is functionally related to position in the stratafied social structure, and (2) that there results a surprisingly marked diversity of behavior by adolescents by different social classes. Hollingshead stresses the departures in actuality from the "American dream" and directs his book to the intelligent general reader as well as to specialists. [Source: PI]

Pixley, Erma and Emma Beekman. 1949. "The Faith of Youth as Shown by a Survey in Public Schools of Los Angeles." Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 336-342.
Abstract: In May 1949 a survey was conducted by the Moral and Spiritual Education Section of the Los Angeles Public Schools of the attitudes of high school seniors toward religion. Of 3,676 students who wrote anonymous essays on church attendance 36% attend church regularly, 52% irregularly, and 12% never attend. Of 3,317 students who wrote on prayer 22% pray to ask for personal benefits, 19% to express thanks, 15% to talk to God, 11% to ask for guidance, 10% to comply with habit, and 9% to seek comfort. Students recommend that schools offer voluntary non-denominational religious education, that homes should encourage early religious training of children, that the church should have a more reverent atmosphere during worship services, and encourage more club and recreational opportunities for youth. Excerpts from essays are quoted. [Source: PI]

Hartley, Eugene L., Max Rosenbaum, and Shepard Schwartz. 1948. "Children's Use of Ethnic Frames of Reference: An Exploratory Study of Children's Conceptualizations of Multiple Ethnic Group Membership." Journal of Psychology vol. 26, pp. 367-386.
Abstract: This study undertook to test identification of children with ethnic group symbols from ages of 3.5 to 10.5. Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant children were interviewed, some of the latter being colored. Typical questions: Are you Jewish? What does it mean to be Jewish? Can you be Jewish and American? Frames of reference develop with age, and different situations evoke different types of reference frames, which differ from adults' frames. [Source: PI]

Canadian Youth Commission. 1945. Young Canada & Religion. Toronto: The Ryerson press.

Kuhlen, R. G. and M. Arnold. 1944. "Age Differences in Religious Beliefs and Problems During Adolescence." Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 65, pp. 291-300.
Abstract: "Five hundred forty-seven children and adolescents, in three groups which averaged 12, 15, and 18 years of age, responded to a questionnaire which listed 52 statements representing various religious beliefs and 18 problems dealing with religious issues. Many significant differences appeared in religious beliefs when twelve-year-olds and eighteen-year-olds were compared. A greater tolerance with respect to religious beliefs and practice, a discarding of a number of specific beliefs and increased 'wondering about' statements regarding the hereafter (death, heaven, hell) constituted the major trends. An analysis of responses of 'wondering about' particular beliefs and 'problems' did not substantiate the commonly accepted hypothesis that adolescence is a period of generally increased religious doubts and problems. Catholics 'wondered about' fewer beliefs and checked fewer problems than did non-Catholics." [Source: PI]

Wheeler, L. R. and V. D. Wheeler. 1944. "Religious Ideas of Children in Communities of Two Different Cultural Patterns." Journal of Educational Sociology vol. 17, pp. 563-571.
Abstract: On the basis of replies to questions by a large number of clergymen, a questionnaire of 50 items was constructed covering factual knowledge and ideas concerning God, prayer, future life, the church, Jesus, the sacraments, Christian conduct, and religion in general. It was given to seventh- and eighth-grade pupils in industrial Lebanon, N.H., and in the college town of Hanover, N.H., and the results were compared with the clergymen's standards. Among the pupils who attend church or Sunday school, the Hanover pupils showed more factual knowledge than those from Lebanon. Among nonchurch children the average scores on factual questions were the same for the two communities. Questions on ideas and attitudes gave the Hanover children slightly higher average scores than the Lebanon children. This difference is greater among nonchurch children in the two communities. [Source: PI]

McCaffrey, Augustine. 1941. "Youth in a Catholic Parish; a Dissertation." Ph.D. Thesis, Catholic University of America, Washington.

Middleton, W. C. and P. J. Fay. 1941. "Attitudes of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Girls toward Sunday Observance, the Bible, and War." Journal of Educational Psychology vol. 32, pp. 555-558.
Abstract: 3 of Thurstone's scales for the measurement of social attitude were administered to 83 delinquent and 100 non-delinquent girls, all from 8th to 10th grade level. The delinquents showed measured attitudes more favorable to Sunday observance and the Bible. There was no significant difference between the groups in attitude toward war. [Source: PI]

Long, Jacob Avery. 1940. Young People and the Church: A Study of the Attitudes of 726 Pittsburgh Presbyterian Young People toward the Church and Its Program. Philadelphia, PA: J. A. Long.

Dunstan, John L. 1939. "A Study of Some Factors Making for the Continued Participation of Individuals in the Program of a City Church, with Particular Attention to the Adolescent-Adult Transition." Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York.

Bell, H. M. 1938. Youth Tell Their Story. American Council on Education.
Abstract: This is a study of conditions and attitudes of young people between the ages of 16 and 24. What is the youth problem in the United States and what do youth think of this problem? Conclusions are drawn from a study of Maryland youth, rural and urban, negro and white. Young people are not bitter and rebellious, but apathetic, accepting their given lot meekly. Home and church appear not to have lost their hold on youth. The article is illustrated and the comments by the young people themselves are given. [Source: PI]

Hillery, Mary Paula. 1937. "The Religious Life of Adolescent Girls, a Socio-Psychological Study." Ph.D. Thesis, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.,.

Dimock, H. S. 1936. "New Light on Adolescent Religion." Religious Education vol. 31, pp. 273-279.
Abstract: This article reports the results of an investigation seeking to throw light on the religious development of adolescents. 200 boys were studied continuously over a period of years. They were normal and their status regarding pubescence was established. The questionnaire method was used. From this study the author concludes that "these adolescent years are apparently sterile and barren from the standpoint of developing individuals with a contemporary, religious world view." Furthermore, there is no rapid acceleration of interest in religious ideas during adolescence and the growth of religious thinking which does take place bears no appreciable relation to the process of physiological development. Finally the study brings the author to the conclusion that "since moral and religious thinking seem primarily to be conditioned socially rather than biologically they should be amenable to educational control and direction." [Source: PI]

Franzblau, A. N. 1934. "Religious Belief and Character among Jewish Adolescents." Teachers College Contributions to Education p. 80.
Abstract: 701 students aged 12 to 16 years were given a battery of character tests, intelligence tests, and religious tests. The findings show that maturity measures (intelligence, age, etc.) are negatively related to the acceptance of religious beliefs, as are all measures of honesty and character. None of the evidence which was found supports the principle, fundamental in most religions, that acceptance of the traditional religious dogmas is creative of superior character. The "Religious Ideas Test" and the "Confession and Reporting Blank" developed for the study are given, together with the data on their validity and reliability. The bibliography lists 32 titles. [Source: PI]

Trout, D. M. 1934. "How the Child Becomes Religious." Child Welfare Pamphlet No. 40, State University of Iowa.
Abstract: Whenever the child performs an act with integrity, he is behaving religiously. He begins to become religious whenever he responds wholeheartedly to any objectives or goals. When his energies are so focalized, organized, devoted to the achievement of an objective or a series of goals that all fears, conflicts, indecisions and distractions disappear, he is acting religiously. The child becomes religious through a gradual process of satisfaction of demands, education and learning. The means which he uses to achieve his ends are imposed upon him by adults, adopted by him from exemplary behavior or invented as appropriate completions of otherwise unorganized situations. [Source: PI]

Chave, E. J. 1932. "Measurement of Ideas of God." Religious Education vol. 27, pp. 252-254.
Abstract: Chave refers to two published Ph.D. theses, one by A. H. MacLean and one by H. I. Donnelly; the former aimed to analyze the ideas of God held by 75 primary children by means of interviews, and those of 443 junior and intermediate children by questionnaires. While the results were not entirely satisfactory, the method was suggestive. The same was true of the work of Donnelly, who used a vocabulary test, a rating scale to show the effect of faith in God upon conduct, an attitude scale to measure trust in God, and a check list to determine the nature and certainty of beliefs about God. These studies suggest a promising field for work. [Source: PI]

Archer, John Clark. 1931. Youth in a Believing World; Studies in Living Religions. Philadelphia: The Westminster press.

Dudycha, G. J. 1930. "The Religious Beliefs of College Freshmen." School and Society vol. 31, pp. 206-208.
Abstract: All freshmen entering Ripon College in 1929-1930 were requested to indicate on a questionnaire their belief or disbelief in each of 25 religious propositions. Twenty-five minutes after the first questionnaire had been answered a second was submitted in which the propositions included in the first were presented in the negative. The correlation between the results of the two questionnaires was .93. Among the propositions upon which the students were asked to react were such as the following: the existence of God, heaven, hell, angels, the devil, the soul, miracles, etc. In the average case 60% of the propositions were said to be accepted whole-heartedly, while only 8% were disbelieved with equal conviction. Lukewarm faith or non-committal attitudes were confessed on the average with respect to 32% of the items. It is concluded that students tend to believe more than they disbelieve and that their faiths are firm. Among the propositions accepted most frequently and with most conviction were the moral truth of the ten commandments, the existence of God, the existence of the soul, and the divinity of Christ. Of the existence of the devil, on the other hand, 53% of the students were skeptical. [Source: PI]

Kelloway, W. F. 1930. "Young People's Attitudes toward Worship." Religious Education vol. 25, pp. 303-305.
Abstract: After making tests on 600 young people from fourteen to twenty-five years of age, the author concludes that while they are largely interested in public worship they dislike the artificial arrangement of services. The beauties of nature and the serious problems of life stimulate in them an attitude of worship, whereas we have tried to substitute for this dimly lit churches, flowing robes, and ritual. It may not be wise to discontinue formal worship, but for young people worship should not be made unnatural or inflicted from without. [Source: PI]

Bose, R. G. 1929. "Religious Concepts of Children." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 831-837.
Abstract: Since thinking is a factor in action, religious thinking is a factor also in determining conduct. 100 concepts such as God, church, Bible, were used with high school pupils in Southern California to discover what meanings children associated with them. It was found that a short stay in church school did as well as a longer one, and that there was but little evidence of growth after fifteen years of age. The present church school appears inadequate for religious development and does not fit children for religious experience. [Source: PI]

Halliday, James F. 1929. Robbing Youth of Its Religion. New York: Red Label Reprints.

Strang, R. 1929. "Religious Activities of Adolescent Girls." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 313-321.
Abstract: This is a study of 140 high school girls in different geographical, economic, and social environments. The object was to discover how much time is spent in formal religious activities. The data were obtained from daily schedules which the girls kept for one or two weeks. 63% of these girls attended either church or Sunday school. 71% took no part in clubs or other week-day church programs. 89% reported no religious observances at home. The extra-church activities of those who attended church and those who did not showed no significant differences. There seemed no important differences in intelligence between church-goers and non-church-goers. [Source: PI]

Varkuyl, G. 1929. Adolescent Worship, with Emphasis on Senior High School Age. NY: Revell.

Young, J. R. 1929. "The Changing Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Religion and the Church." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 775-778.
Abstract: In recent years the church has been losing its hold upon adolescents. The young are skeptical of the Bible and its sanctions for conduct. The church should emphasize the concept of God as a God of physical and social as well as of moral law, and the idea that retribution is a natural result of bad conduct. The church should provide opportunities for active service in social and religious work, and present a sympathetic attitude towards the craving for independence, reasoning and joyful activity. [Source: PI]

Horan, E. 1928. "Religious Needs of the High-School Girl." Thought vol. 3, pp. 375-395.

Sacks, M. L. 1928. Religious Consciousness of Late Adolescence. NY: Avon Press.
Abstract: Book One: Relations between religion and the sciences, as biology, psychology, sociology; and between religion, philosophy, theology and morality. Religion has been the cause of many decided changes in civilization. This should be an impetus towards a better understanding of the basic principles underlying religion, the possible application of religion to modern life, and its potentialities in the development of realities. It cannot be divorced from science or vice versa. It represents a worldly whole and consists of the soul, science and the world. It must be recognized as a natural phenomenon which must be dealt with from every possible scientific point of view. Adolescence is preeminently the period of the rise of religious consciousness in the individual. Book Two: A case study in religious consciousness. Evaluation of questionnaire methods. Questionnaire given to about 800 males and females, ages from 13 to 57 years, with majority between 16 and 26. Questions such as: "What does religion mean to you?" "Do you think you were born with religious feeling, etc.?" "Did your understanding of religion undergo a change, from 12th to 14th to 16th years, etc.?" Individual treatment of responses, and typical responses given. Book Three: What are the colleges doing to satisfy the religious needs of late adolescents? Questionnaire sent to 52 colleges. Conclusions quite heterogeneous. 55 references to psychology of religion are appended. [Source: PI]

Alexander, John L. (ed.). 1913. The Sunday School and the Teens; the Report of the Commission on Adolescence Authorized by the San Francisco Convention of the International Sunday School Association. A Study of the Adolescent in Relationship to the Home, Church, Sunday School and the Community. New York: Association press.

Drury, Marion Richardson. 1890. "Young People's Christian Societies." United Brethren Review pp. 254-268.

Dimmick, Luther Fraseur. 1836. The Claims of Religion Upon the Young. Newburyport Mass.: C Whipple.

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.