Barbarin, Oscar A. 1999. “Do Parental Coping, Involvement, Religiosity, and Racial Identity Mediate Children's Psychological Adjustment to Sickle Cell Disease?” Journal of Black Psychology vol. 25, pp. 391-426.

            Abstract: Many African Americans with sickle cell disease (SCD) also experience significant economic hardship. Yet, few studies of the psychosocial effects of SCD employ designs robust enough to control socioeconomic factors. This study compares the functioning of families with SCD to that of healthy controls matched for race and SES. Child Ss (aged 5-18 yrs) included 77 children with SCD, 28 siblings of children with SCD, and 74 children who had neither an illness nor siblings with an illness. A total of 71 parents of SCD children and 50 control parents also participated in the study. Results show that in general, functioning within SCD and control families did not differ. However parents granted less autonomy to, and were less involved in the schooling of children with SCD. Overall, SCD had a greater impact on children's social and academic competence than on their emotional functioning. However adolescents with SCD and their siblings were at greater risk for mental health difficulties than were controls. The more SCD interfered with living normally, the greater the risk of psychological dysfunction. Importantly, emotional well-being in parents moderated the adverse effects of SCD on children. Similarly, racial consciousness, religiosity, and emotional support enhanced parental coping.  [Source: PI]


            Shillinglaw, Regina Dillingham. 1999. “Protective Factors among Adolescents from Violent Families: Why Are Some Youth Exposed to Child Abuse and/or Interparental Violence Less Violent Than Others?” Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.

            Abstract: The transactional model of development suggests that the development of violent behavior is the result of reciprocal processes between individual, family, and environmental variables, some of which increase the probability of violent behavior and some of which decrease the probability of violent behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify factors which are associated with less violent behavior among at-risk adolescents. The risk status of the participants was defined as being a victim of familial violence, a witness to familial violence, or both. In addition, the participants were juvenile delinquents which also placed them at risk for violent behavior. The following protective factors were examined: flexible temperament, positive mood, positive relationship with a non-parental adult, empathy, religious beliefs, cognitive ability, positive attitude toward school, approach-oriented temperament, high self-esteem, internal locus of control, and prosocial success. Data was obtained from 226 male adolescents committed to the Department of Juvenile Justice via self-report measures and file review. An analysis of covariance revealed that the protective factors which are significantly associated with lower levels of violence were: a withdrawal-oriented temperament, empathy, religious beliefs, and high self-esteem. Possible explanation of the findings and implications for future research are discussed.  [Source: PI]


            Gustafson, Cynthia Zotalis. 1998. “The Effects of a Health Promotion Program on Parental Attitudes and Behaviors and Adolescent Sexual Well-Being.” Thesis, University of Michigan.

            Abstract: Fifty-two parents and their 35 teens participated in an eight-week church-based health promotion program designed to strengthen parental attitudes and behaviors that enhance adolescent sexual well-being. Measures of interpersonal influences of parents and adolescent sexual well-being of this group were compared with 37 parents and their 28 teens who did not participate in the program. Teens in the program increased satisfaction with their own personal sexuality and clarity of personal sexual values. Families also displayed a trend toward increased quality of parent-teen communication about sex when compared to families not participating in the program. These are positive initial effects given the limited time frame for intervention and measurement of outcomes. Implementation of the program by the investigator was successfully completed in the religious communities and is an example of a community-based nursing intervention that can be tested further as a means to address the health promotion needs of the parent-teen population.  [Source: PI]


            Jessor, Richard, Mark S. Turbin, and Frances M. Costa. 1998. “Protective Factors in Adolescent Health Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 75, pp. 788-800.

            Abstract: The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality--unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence.  [Source: PI]


            Patton, John Douglas. 1998. “Exploring the Relative Outcomes of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Factors of Order and Entropy in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Chicago.

            Abstract: This dissertation is based on a data from a national sample of 297 adolescents who were among those participating in the five-year Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Study of Youth and Social Development. This study investigates change over time in various entropic and stabilizing factors—both interpersonal and intrapersonal—and explores their relative contribution to emotional and physical well being with reference to demographics. Data from interpersonal measures (family, school, and religious support; and school and family adversity), intrapersonal measures (the amount of time spent in four quadrants—flow, relaxation, anxiety and apathy), and outcome measures (self-esteem, affect, motivation, anger, physical pain, quality of time use, and the Hope Scale) were collected at three time points between 1992 and 1997. This study found that low social status, compared to higher social status, was associated with greater levels of psychic entropy (apathy and anxiety) and adversity, and lower levels of social support, relaxation, and self- esteem (but higher affect). This suggests that low social status has serious implications for the development of adolescents. The study also indicated that the support of certain social institutions impacts boys and girls differently. Family support was predictive of positive outcomes for both genders, but school and religious support seemed to help only boys. Flow proved beneficial for both genders. The data indicated that low challenge may have a devastating developmental impact on boys, whereas excessive challenge has the worst long-term implications for girls.  [Source: DA]


            Sawyer, Robin G., Paul J. Pinciaro, and Anne Anderson Sawyer. 1998. “Pregnancy Testing and Counseling-a University Health Center's 5-Year Experience.” Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 221-225.


            Villarruel, A. M., L. S. Jemmott, M. Howard, L. Taylor, and E. ddBush. 1998. “Practice What We Preach? Hiv Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors of Adolescents and Adolescent Peer Educators.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care vol. 9, pp. 61-72.

            Abstract: The purpose of this article is to (a) describe the knowledge, beliefs, and sexual behaviors of urban adolescents and adolescent peer educators, and (b) identify elements needed to design effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs for out-of-school youth. Thirty-three predominantly African American adolescents (female = 14; male = 19) between the ages of 14 and 24 in a large urban city including adolescents (n = 18) and adolescent peer educators (n = 15) participated. Paper-and-pencil questionnaire and focus-group interviewing methods were used. Adolescents and adolescent peer educators had a moderately high level of HIV knowledge, confidence in their ability to use condoms, and beliefs that condom use would not decrease sexual pleasure or imply infidelity. Both groups reported low perceptions of susceptibility to HIV infection. Engagement in sexual risk behavior was low, but was significantly higher among males. Although adolescent male peer educators engaged in a higher frequency of risk behaviors over time, they had a lower frequency of sexual risk behaviors in the past 2 months compared with male adolescents. Study findings showed that HIV prevention interventions need to include information about specific risk behaviors, such as using condoms for oral sex, and cleaning drug paraphernalia. Community-based and church programs, visible HIV prevention messages, specifically those aimed at increasing perceptions of HIV risk, and the development of condom-use skills were identified by adolescents and adolescent peer educators as relevant approaches to reduce HIV infection among this population.  [Source: CI]


            Wallace, John M., Jr. and Tyrone A. Forman. 1998. “Religion's Role in Promoting Health and Reducing Risk among American Youth.” Health Education and Behavior vol. 25, pp. 721-741.

            Abstract: Although past research has documented religion's salutary impact on adult health-related behaviors and outcomes, relatively little research has examined the relationship between religion and adolescent health. This study uses large, nationally representative samples of high school seniors to examine the relationship between religious importance, attendance, and affiliation and behaviors that compromise or enhance adolescents' health (unintentional and intentional injury, substance use, lifestyle behaviors). Relative to their peers, religious youth are less likely to engage in behaviors that compromise their health (e.g., carrying weapons, getting into fights, drinking and driving) and are more likely to behave in ways that enhance their health (e.g., proper nutrition, exercise, and rest). Multivariate analyses suggest that these relationships persist even after controlling for demographic factors, and trend analyses reveal that they have existed over time. Particularly important is the finding that religious seniors have been relatively unaffected by past and recent increases in marijuana use.  [Source: PI]


            Ark, Pamela Dale. 1997. “Health Risk Behaviors and Coping Strategies of African- American Sixth Graders.” Ph.d. Thesis, The University of Tennessee Center For the Health Sciences.

            Abstract: Children, eleven to fourteen years, experience times of lifestyle change. Children can develop health behaviors that could result in illness and premature death. The reduction of risk behaviors among children, addressed in the Healthy People 2000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990) goals, recommended education regarding injury prevention, physical activity. and healthy nutritional choices. Study purposes included: examine height, weight, and blood pressure measurements; investigate health risk behaviors and coping strategies; and determine relationships among physiological variables, health behaviors, and coping strategies. Health behaviors were measured by a version of 1995 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a 70 item survey on unintentional injuries; tobacco, alcohol, and drug use; dietary behavior; and physical activity. Coping strategies were measured by Ryan-Wenger's Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory (SCSI), a 26 item survey on frequency and effectiveness of coping strategies. The conceptual framework guiding the study was Neuman's Systems Model (1995). Client variables included: physiological: height, weight, and blood pressure measurements; psychological: coping strategies; sociocultural: living in proximity to inner city school; developmental: age and gender; and spiritual: prayer as a coping strategy. The sample was 173 African American sixth graders, ages 11 to 14, females (n = 98) and males (n = 75), from five inner city schools with written parental consent. There was no statistical difference by gender in body mass index. Statistical differences were found by gender with more males than females reporting physical fighting. Older males than females, ages 12 and 13, reported tobacco and marijuana use. There was zero reported use of cocaine and no statistical differences by gender on alcohol, dietary behaviors, or physical activity. Coping strategies (sample mean was 19.4) reported more often were prayer (75 percent) and watch television or listen to music (75 percent). Multiple regression showed interaction effects of unintentional injuries with gender and SCSI effectiveness scale. There were statistical differences in means between females and males, ages 12 and 13, suggesting need for further investigation of coping strategies. Further investigation of coping strategies among sixth graders and their family in relationship with the environment is recommended to determine coping strategies of the family unit.  [Source: DA]


            Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. “Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents.” Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.

            Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth.  [Source: PI]


            Wallace, John M., Jr. and David R. Williams. 1997. “Religion and Adolescent Health-Compromising Behavior.” Pp. 444-468 in Health Risks and Developmental Transitions During Adolescence, edited by John Schulenberg and Jennifer L. Maggs. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

            Abstract: (from the chapter) begin to bridge the gap between research on religion (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors concerning things spiritual) and research on adolescent health outcomes describe the "epidemiology" of religion among American youth discuss the relative neglect of religion by researchers interested in adolescent health review, selectively, empirical research on the relationship between religion and the 2 potentially health-compromising behaviors in which American youth are most likely to engage--precocious sexual involvement and the use of licit and illicit drugs discuss problems and limitations in the extant research on religion and adolescent health outcomes concludes with the discussion of a conceptual framework.  [Source: PI]


            Chandy, Joseph M., Robert W. Blum, and Michael D. Resnick. 1996a. “Female Adolescents with a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence vol. 11, pp. 503-518.

            Abstract: Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of 1,011 female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse and a comparison group of 1,011 female teenagers without a background of abuse. Results show that abused Ss had higher rates of these adverse outcomes than nonabused Ss. Among abused Ss, protective factors against adverse outcome included a higher degree of religiosity, perceived health, caring from adults, living with both biological parents, and the presence of a clinic or nurse at school. Risk factors that increased the likelihood of adverse outcome included perceived substance use in school, mothers' use of alcohol, family stressor events during the past year, and worry about sexual coercion.  [Source: PI]


            Chandy, Joseph M., Robert W. Blum, and Michael D. Resnick. 1996b. “History of Sexual Abuse and Parental Alcohol Misuse: Risk, Outcomes and Protective Factors in Adolescents.” Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 13, pp. 411-432.

            Abstract: Examined the factors of school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use among 1,959 teenagers with a history of sexual abuse or parental alcohol misuse. It was found that Ss had higher rates of adverse outcomes than among a comparison group of teenagers without such background risk factors. Adolescents with dual-risk background reported higher levels of suicide risk, disordered eating, sexual behaviors, and chemical abuse than did Ss with only one background risk factor. Among index group members, protective factors against adverse outcomes included a high degree of religiosity and the ability to discuss problems with family or friends. Risk factors that increased the likelihood of adverse outcomes included depression, perceived substance use in school, and worries about family financial security.  [Source: PI]


            Hopkins, Gary Lee. 1996. “An Aids Risk Appraisal of Students Attending Seventh-Day Adventist High Schools in the United States and Canada.” Ph.d. Thesis, Loma Linda University.

            Abstract: Since its first recognition in 1981, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a global disease of increasing prevalence. Because there is no current cure or vaccination available to effectively prevent AIDS, health education has become an important method of reducing the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is known to cause AIDS. A substantial amount of research has been conducted in public high schools aimed at identifying determinants of students AIDS-risk behaviors. With the exception of one study conducted by Ludescher (1992), theory based AIDS- behavioral research in Christian student populations have not been reported. In the present study, 1,748 students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) four-year high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess (1) the HIV/AIDS-related behaviors of substance use and sexual intercourse before marriage and the determinants of these two risk behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1989), and (2) HIV/AIDS related attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived control in a sample of SDA high school students based on the TPB. A substantial number of research participants reported prior sexual and drug use behaviors. The rates of both of these behaviors were lower in SDA than in non-SDA respondents. Those students who reported that their parent(s) used either tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana demonstrated higher rates of past sexual intercourse and substance use than those students who reported that their parent(s) were not users of any of the three substances. Using multiple regression analysis, the best predictor of the respondents intention to have sexual intercourse before marriage their perceived control over this behavior. Further, the cognitive underpinnings that best predicted the students perceived control regarding sexual intercourse before marriage were spiritual strength and encouragement from their teachers. Useful conclusions drawn from this research were not that a certain proportion of SDA youth engaged in sexual behaviors or substance use, but were rather that SDA youth are not immune or exempt from engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. Also, some of the cognitive underpinnings of the student's attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control as they relate to sexual intercourse have now been identified. Educators can now act by creatively designing strategies that when implemented may serve to reduce the consequences of the acts studied. The Office of Education of the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists might consider a continuous assessment based on behavioral theory that would further clarify determinants of health risk behaviors in their student population in the future. An analysis such as this would allow for quick corrective interventions when indicated.  [Source: DA]


            Bennet, T., D.A.  Deleuca, and R.W. Allen. 1995. “Religion and Children with Disabilities.” Journal of Religion and Health vol. 34, pp. 301-312.


            Emmons, Lillian. 1994. “Predisposing Factors Differentiating Adolescent Dieters and Nondieters.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association vol. 94, p. 725.

            Abstract: Examines whether certain biological, socio-cultural and psychological factors differentiate dieters from non-dieting adolescents. Research design; High-school seniors as subjects; Comparison of dieters and nondieters using weights, parental weights, birth order, socioeconomic status, religion affiliation, self-esteem scores and other psychological factors.  [Source: AS]


            Kuczmarski, R. J., J. J. B. Anderson, and G. G. Koch. 1994. “Correlates of Blood-Pressure in 7th-Day-Adventist (Sda) and Non-Sda Adolescents.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition vol. 13, pp. 165-173.

            Abstract: Objective: This comparative study was designed to discover early determinants of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) elevations in 138 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) and 89 non-SDA male and female adolescents (median age, 17 years) living at three residential secondary schools in North Carolina. Methods: Measurements were made of blood pressure, body weight, and height, and information was collected on lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and other behaviors, including exercise, religiosity, Type A behavior, and anger, by questionnaire. Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed with BP, either SBP or DBP, as the independent variable. Results: A significant direct association was found only between body weight and BP, but weak associations were shown between BP and other variables, including exercise, diet, religiosity, Type A behavior, and anger. Male and female SDA students showed significantly higher SBPs and DBPs than did non-SDA adolescents though the differences were small (approximately 5 mm for each sex). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the higher BP values of SDA adolescents, who were all practicing lacto-ovo-vegetarians, compared to similarly aged health-conscious non-SDAs, are determined more by eating behaviors that contribute to gains in body weight than by any other lifestyle variable. Furthermore, these data support the notion that the BP-protective effects of the vegetarian diet may not emerge in these SDA youth until early adulthood.  [Source: SC]


            Ruiz Ruiz, M., J. M. Pena Andreu, and G. Jimenez Lerida. 1993. “Family Ecological Factors and Attitudes Towards Physical Illness.” European Journal of Psychiatry vol. 7, pp. 197-201.

            Abstract: Examines the significance of family ecological factors in determining attitudes toward physical illness among 100 adolescents ages 16-18 with similar economic, cultural, & environmental characteristics, based on scale data. Statistical analysis shows a significant relationship between familial characteristics & the development of attitudes toward physical illness. Specifically: cohesion, level of conflict, & degree of familial autonomy condition the teenager's attitude toward preventive behavior against illness; autonomy, achievement, morality-religiousness, & degree of control in the family group define the quality of mechanisms that an adolescent uses to cope with physical disease.  [Source: SA]


            Ludescher, Gerd. 1992. “Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Adolescents Attending Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in California.” Dr. P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.

            Abstract: Since it was first recognized in 1981, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a pandemic disease. Because public education has being recognized as the most effective means to fight the spread of AIDS, there has been an increasing assessment of AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in adolescents at the local, state, and national level. These studies, however, have been conducted almost exclusively in public schools. Data from private Christian high schools have been rarely gathered or analyzed separately. Such studies are (except for drug use) largely non-existent for Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) schools. In the present study, 488 adolescents grades 9 through 12, attending SDA-academies throughout California participated and returned a mailed self-administered questionnaire anonymously. The students belonged to a random cluster sample of 225 SDA churches. The questionnaire assessed AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; some of their family-, church- , and school-related determinants; and social desirability response tendency (SDRT) of the study participants. AIDS-related findings were compared with the 1990/1991 data of the statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in public schools. A significant number of participants reported involvement in drug use and/or sexual intercourse. Occurrence, however, was consistently and markedly lower than in students from public schools. AIDS knowledge and attitude scores were substantially higher in students from SDA-schools. Family-related determinants showed a statistically significant protective effect against drug use and sexual intercourse in contrast to church and school-related factors. As opposed to sexual activities, drug use was reported more frequently by students with low SDRT. Findings indicate that youth in SDA-schools are not immune to drug use and premarital sex. The study suggests a broad approach of early, continuous, and mandated AIDS education in school as well as significant family life programs. Regular and comprehensive youth risk behavior surveys to monitor changes, take corrective actions if necessary, and allow comparison with public schools are also recommended. Finally, further research about the impact of "safe sex" and "abstinence only" curricula on student behavior is encouraged.  [Source: DA]


            Boyer, Cherrie B. and Susan M. Kegeles. 1991. “Aids Risk and Prevention among Adolescents.” Social Science and Medicine vol. 33, pp. 11-23.

            Abstract: Although adolescents currently account for only 1% of the reported cases of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in the US, the % of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is undoubtedly much greater. Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV transmission because of their behavioral lifestyle, including unprotected sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, & intravenous drug use; inner-city minority teenagers, youth in detention facilities, & street youth are at particular risk. It is argued that prevention programs emphasizing cognitive & behavioral skills training are essential to limit further spread of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. The AIDS Risk Reduction Model, an example of such a social-physiological program, identifies three stages necessary to reduce risky sexual activities: (1) recognizing that one's activities make one vulnerable to contracting HIV; (2) deciding to alter these behaviors & implementing that decision; & (3) overcoming barriers to enacting the decision, eg, problems in sexual communication & seeking help when necessary. To reach all adolescents, it is recommended that HIV prevention programs be age-appropriate & sensitive to cultural values, religious beliefs, sex roles, & adolescent group customs.  [Source: SA]


            Persinger, M. A. 1991. “Preadolescent Religious Experience Enhances Temporal Lobe Signs in Normal Young Adults.” Perceptual and Motor Skills vol. 72, pp. 453-454.

            Abstract: Compared responses to a personal philosophy inventory by 174 university students who indicated that their first religious experience had occurred before they were teenagers and 694 students who denied such an experience. Results support the hypothesis that earlier onset of limbic lability is associated with subjective experiences infused with more affect and meaningfulness.  [Source: PI]


            Spilka, Bernard, William J. Zwartjes, and Georgia M. Zwartjes. 1991. “The Role of Religion in Coping with Childhood Cancer.” Pastoral Psychology vol. 39, pp. 295-304.

            Abstract: Examined the role of religion in the crisis of childhood cancer through interviews with 259 members of 118 families that had a child with cancer. 66 patients (mean age 15.1 yrs), 112 mothers, and 81 fathers completed interviews. Measures of family and patient religiosity were related to a broad spectrum of parental and patient perceptions and activities. Religion related positively to familial support of the patient and to efforts to keep school performance at pre-illness levels. As religious commitment increased following diagnosis, there were signs of a narrowing of the family's social field. At the same time, relationships with close friends may be strengthening. Religion appeared to act as a protective-defensive system that motivated efforts by family members to cope constructively with the crisis of illness.  [Source: PI]


            Weisner, T.S., L.  Beizer, and L. Stolze. 1991. “Religion and Families of Children with Developmental Delays.” American Journal of Mental Retardation vol. 95, pp. 647-662.


            Antosz, Lawrence J. 1990. “Religiosity, Identity Development, and Health Outcomes in a Late Adolescent Sample.” Ph.d. Thesis, Michigan State University.

            Abstract: The current study (N = 440) attempted to replicate and extend the findings of a previous study by this author on the role of religion in coping with stress in a late adolescent sample. That study suggested that religion, particularly personal religious beliefs and prayer, may help late adolescents cope with the stresses associated with their developmental period by selectively influencing their perceptions of minor daily events. The current research investigated whether this relationship between religion and the perception of minor daily events was in turn related to physical and mental health outcomes. Several hypotheses were made about the indirect and direct relationship of specific religious variables with health measures. Correlational and path analyses failed to support many of the hypotheses. Only some small positive, as well as negative, direct links between religion and health outcomes were found. In general, the results for this sample of late adolescents were consistent with the findings in the literature for adult samples that religion has a positive but small relationship to measures of well-being. Additional analyses uncovered some information about the relationship of religion to general identity development as well as pointing to some of the components of religion that seem to be particularly salient for this age group. Based on this sample, it appears that there are important gender differences in the structure and function of religion. For this sample, religion seemed to be closely associated with the Foreclosure identity status for males, while it related to the Achievement status for females. For both males and females of this age group, the personal meaning that is associated with religious belief and commitment appears to be the crucial element in religion. In particular for females, the social aspects of religious involvement seem to be important. Finally, this study provided further psychometric support for the religiosity measure developed by this author in a previous study.  [Source: DA]


            Coisman, Frederick G. 1990. “Adolescent Depression and Eating Disorders.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 72-80.

            Abstract: Examines definitions of anorexia nervosa and bulimia with their relationship to clinical depression. A partial review includes the literature regarding the diagnostic controversy surrounding anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and depression; belief systems of those with these disorders; and treatment approaches. It is concluded that eating disorders may be highly correlated with depression but that causality may be apparent in few cases. Treatment has been effective when it has targeted the whole person including eating behavior, cognitive distortions, affect, and depression when present. Implications for Christian researchers and therapists are discussed.  [Source: PI]


            Mahaffey, Barbara. 1990. “The Influence of Family Environment on Diabetic Adjustment and Metabolic Control in Diabetic Adolescents.” M.SC. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada).

            Abstract: Juvenile diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness which has considerable impact on adolescents with diabetes and their families. This study examined the relationship between diabetic adjustment, family environment and metabolic control. There was a positive and statistically significant relationship between one aspect of diabetic adjustment and metabolic control. Thus, adolescents who had better attitudes to diabetes had better levels of metabolic control. The relationship between diabetic adjustment and social support was such that the more support the parents received from their spouse and children, the better the adolescent's diabetic adjustment. The most important informal sources of support identified were the family. The relationship between metabolic control and social support was such that increased levels of support to the parents was associated with poorer levels of adolescent metabolic control. Social support was represented by four sources: relatives and friends, groups, religion, media and one kind of support, altruistic support. These results suggest that social support may have been used by the parents as a coping strategy.  [Source: DA]


            McKaig, Charlene S. 1989. “The Relationships among Adolescent Future Time Perspective, Self-Esteem and Present Health Behavior.” Ed.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Buffalo.

            Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship of adolescent health behavior to future time perspective, self-esteem, and the demographic characteristics of gender, race, age, grade in school, socioeconomic status, and religion. The health promotion model was used as the organizing framework. Four instruments were used to measure the variables: the Teen Wellness Check measured health behavior, the dependent variable; the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory; the Future Time Perspective Inventory; and a short questionnaire eliciting information about religion, church attendance, and parents' education and occupation. In addition, parent questionnaires were completed by 18 parents to compare their responses on selected health behavior items with their adolescents' responses. A sample of 303 adolescents were surveyed from three different high schools in one public city school system in the Southeastern United States. The majority (64.4%) of the sample was in middle adolescence, 15 and 16 years old and in the 9th grade (69.6%). More than half were female (59.7%). The adolescents were predominantly Black (95.7%) and came from families where the mothers (92.6%) and fathers (89.9%) had a high school education or less. Two hundred sixty-one subjects (86.7%) identified themselves as Protestants and 194 (64.7%) said they attended a church once a week or more. Multiple regression analyses resulted in three variables being mildly predictive (17.9% of the variance at p $leq$.05) of positive health behavior: high self-esteem, church attendance weekly or more often, and a father with less than a high school education. Self-esteem accounted for over one third (38.1%) of the variance. A longer future time perspective, although weakly correlated (r = $-$0.19), was not predictive of positive health behavior. Future recommendations include expanding the research to include a more heterogeneous sample, adolescents in each developmental category, and adolescents from a variety of identified family constellations. Another recommendation is to continue to evaluate instrumentation to gather data about the multiple factors that influence adolescent health behavior.  [Source: DA]


            Gordon, Samuel A. 1988. “The Impact of Adolescent and Maternal Religiousness on the Psychological Functioning of Chronically Ill Adolescents.” Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.


            Watson, Charles G., Teresa Kucala, Victor Manifold, Mark Juba, and et al. 1988. “The Relationship of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder to Adolescent Illegal Activities, Drinking, and Employment.” Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 44, pp. 592-598.

            Abstract: Compared the self-reported incidences of adolescent legal problems, drinking, employment, and church attendance in 116 male psychiatric patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in 28 normal controls. Data raise doubts about the validity of the theory that PTSD is at least partially a result of pretraumatic personality maladjustment.  [Source: PI]


            McGrath, Eileen Agnes. 1987. “Supportive or Non-Supportive Religious Beliefs of Children with Life-Threatening Diseases.” Ph.D. Thesis, New York University.

            Abstract: Problem. The purpose of this researcher was to investigate the relationship between religious beliefs, religious backgrounds, and the supportive effect of those on the attitudes toward sickness and death of children with diagnosed life-threatening disease. Procedure. Through the use of a semi-structured interview, this descriptive study involved an individual analysis of the content of religious beliefs held by children with life-threatening diseases. There were thirteen boys and twelve girls in the sample, aged nine to twelve, eleven diagnosed with acute lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia, nine with other neoplasms, four with cystic fibrosis, and one child with Coolies anemia. The children were affiliated with various Protestant and Catholic faiths. The Graebner Child Concept of God Inventory, consisting of twenty-two pictures and accompanying questions, was the instrument used by the investigator to assess the children's religious beliefs. The children's responses were tape-recorded verbatim and written by the researcher. The children answered the standardized questions and stated whether the designated concepts of God were supportive or non-supportive to them. The children's answer sheet and tapes were analyzed by the researcher and were also reviewed by a consultant of that child's religion. The parents completed a fourteen-item questionnaire which included the religious background, church attendance, and the child's and sibling's medical history. Findings. It was determined that all the children in this sample had religious beliefs, and for the majority of the children, these beliefs had a supportive effect upon their attitudes toward sickness and death. Seven children stated that one or two concepts of God were not supportive to them, although their overall responses indicated that they held supportive religious beliefs. It could not be concluded if a relationship existed among the religious affiliation, formal years or type of religious education, the children's age, sex, or indication of intelligence, and their supportive or non-supportive beliefs. Parental attitudes and beliefs toward religion and church attendance appeared to have an influence on the child and siblings. Most participants expressed a deep faith and trust in God who was supporting them throughout their illness. Parental attitudes toward the treatment and disease outcome also influenced the child.  [Source: DA]


            Tucker, Larry A. 1987. “Television, Teenagers, and Health.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 415-425.

            Abstract: The effect of TV viewing on adolescents' health-related attitudes & practices & physical fitness level is investigated using data from questionnaires containing multiple assessment instruments completed by 406 white, Mc, high school Ms. Multiple discriminant analysis reveals that high levels of TV watching are significantly associated with poorer physical & emotional health, increased drug & alcohol use, & decreased church attendance, exercise, self-control, self-confidence, & Coll aspirations. Though the directionality of causality cannot be assumed, it is argued that since TV viewing is a passive pastime, the media has great power to shape attitudes & behaviors. At present, its messages largely promote antisocial norms & unhealthy lifestyles. Suggestions are proposed to help health professionals & other specialists develop & promote more healthy, constructive uses of TV.  [Source: SA]


            Hanson, Shirley M. 1986. “Healthy Single Parent Families.” Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies vol. 35, pp. 125-132.

            Abstract: Assessed the characteristics of 42 healthy single-parent families. A total of 84 Ss--the parent (mean age 41.6 yrs) and a target child (mean age 14.1 yrs)--participated. The variables included socioeconomic status (SES), social support, communication, religiousness, problem solving, and the physical and mental health status of single parents and their children. The effects of the sex of custodial parents and the custody arrangements on health outcomes were also analyzed. A multimethod, multivariable approach was used. Data collection procedures included 6 questionnaires (e.g., Family Environment Scale, Family Interaction Schedule) and an interview in the home setting. Single parents and their children reported fairly high levels of both physical and mental health. Communication, social support, SES, religiousness, and problem solving were also correlated with the mental and physical health of parents and children.  [Source: PI]


            Newell Withrow, Cora. 1986. “Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.” Adolescence vol. 21, pp. 641-658.

            Abstract: Investigated how 354 female and 393 male adolescents' health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differed according to age, race, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and religion. The study was based on 2 assumptions: (1) self-management and information-seeking behaviors are fundamental to adolescents' health-seeking behaviors, and (b) Ss answer self-management and information-seeking questions in terms of past behaviors and their behavioral intent. A 142-item questionnaire was administered. Findings included confirmation of (a) gender as a differentiating variable for the performance of information-seeking behavior, and (b) positive health behaviors among Black adolescents. Ss reported an overall positive composite of health-seeking behaviors.  [Source: PI]


            Silber, Tomas J. and Mary Reilly. 1985. “Spiritual and Religious Concerns of the Hospitalized Adolescent.” Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 217-224.

            Abstract: 114 hospitalized 11-29 yr olds completed a Likert scale questionnaire on spiritual and religious concerns. ANOVA was performed to correlate responses with sex, race, religion, type of school, and severity of illness. A subgroup of Ss, those with more serious disease, experienced intensified spiritual and religious concerns. Religious concerns were more frequent among Blacks than Whites, Catholics than Protestants, and parochial school students than public school students. In response to the questionnaire, over 15% of the Ss requested further help. Findings suggest that training in adolescent health care and the provision of services to teenagers ought to include teaching in the area of spiritual and religious values of teenagers, with emphasis on the hospitalized adolescent.  [Source: PI]


            Critchfield, Arthur Barry. 1982. “Religious Achievement of Hearing Impaired Youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.” Ph.d. Thesis, Brigham Young University.

            Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the religious achievement levels of hearing impaired youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in comparison with that of other youth in the same Church. A test of L.D.S. religious knowledge was developed and comparable groups of 72 deaf and 77 non-deaf subjects were evaluated as to their knowledge of basic Church doctrine. Deaf subjects' responses were evaluated to assess what factors lead to improved scores of religious knowledge. Results of the study indicated that hearing impaired youth scored significantly lower on the test of religious knowledge than similar non-hearing impaired young people. Recommendations for improved programming and service delivery were made.  [Source: DA]


            Insel, Paul M., Gary E. Fraser, Roland Phillips, and Phyllis Williams. 1981. “Psychosocial Factors and Blood Pressure in Children.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research vol. 25, pp. 505-511.

            Abstract: 1,567 10-26 yr old children attending Seventh-Day Adventist or public schools completed the Type A Activity Scale, Family Climate Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Checklist, and Adjective Check List. Blood pressure data were also obtained. Results suggest important associations between blood pressure and an adolescent life-style that emphasizes control, ambition, competitiveness, order and organization, religious orientation, and strong pressures to achieve. Seventh-Day Adventist compared to public school Ss strongly emphasized religious orientation and family control.  [Source: PI]


            Remmers, H and B Shimberg. 1949. “Problems of High School Youth. (Purdue Opinion Poll for Young People. Rep. No. 21.).” Purdue University.

            Abstract: A 300-item Problem Checklist was administered to 15,000 high school students in all sections of the U. S. Problem areas covered were (1) school, (2) vocational, (3) personal, (4) social, (5) family, (6) sex, (7) health, (8) general. Methodology and overall results are discussed briefly. Tables are included showing what percentage of students in various sub-groups checked each item. These include breakdowns for (1) total group, (2) sex, (3) school grade, (4) region of U. S., (5) size of community, (6) religion, and (7) family income level. The analysis was based on a stratified sample of 2500 signed questionnaires. The authors compared matched samples of signed and unsigned questionnaires and found that while the unsigned questionnaires yielded slightly higher percentages on nearly all items, the results obtained from both samples were essentially the same.  [Source: PI]